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Languages of Cameroon
Information mainly from SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) 1996 and Atlas Linguistique du Cameroun 1983. 286  languages are currently listed for Cameroon. Of those, 279 are living languages, 3 are second languages without mother tongue speakers, and 4 are extinct.

ABO(BO, ABAW) [ABB] North of Douala and west of the Wouri River, and Dibombari, Moungo Division, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.40). Dialect: BANKON. Intelligibility and bilingualism testing needed. Close to Barombi. Survey needed. 

AFADE(AFFADE, AFADEH, MANDAGE) [AAL] (20,000 or fewer in Nigeria; 1989). Centered around Afade in the southern part of Makari Subdivision, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. It is unclear if the high comprehension of Mpade is because of dialect closeness or bilingualism. 'Mandage', etc., is applied to the northern Kotoko languages. 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed. 

AGHEM(WUM, YUM) [AGQ] 20,000 to 25,000 (1993 SIL). In and around Wum, Wum Central Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. May be intelligible with Isu or Weh. Regional differences in speech are minimal. Some speakers use Cameroon Pidgin as second language. Speakers consider Weh and Isu to be separate languages. There appears to be multilingualism with Weh and Isu. Low comprehension of Kom and Essimbi. Aghem Cultural and Development Association interested in language development. 15% to 25% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. 

AKOOSE(BAKOSSI, BEKOOSE, AKOSI, KOOSE, KOSI, NKOSI, NKOOSI) [BSS] 50,000 (1982 SIL). Bangem and Tombel subdivisions, Kupe-Manenguba Division, South West Province, and Moungo Division, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.10), Ngoe. Dialects: NORTHERN BAKOSSI, WESTERN BAKOSSI, SOUTHERN BAKOSSI, MWAMBONG, NINONG, ELUNG (ELONG, ALONG, NLONG). 15% to 25% literate. Dictionary. Selections 1994. Work in progress. 

AKUM(ANYAR) [AKU] 600 (1986 R. Breton). Near the Nigerian border, Akum village, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. 3 villages in Nigeria (Manga, Ekban, Konkom). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Unclassified. Not Bendi; may be Jukunoid. The people are called 'Anyar'. Isolated, no roads. Bilingualism in Jukun is limited. Cameroons Pidgin is spoken in the area also. Mountain slope. Survey needed. 

AMBELE [AEL] In about 10 villages in eastern Batibo Subdivision, Momo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo. May be related to Busamor Atong. Survey needed. 

ARABIC, SHUWA (ARABE CHOA, SHUWA ARABIC, CHOA, CHOWA, SHUA, CHADIAN SPOKEN ARABIC) [SHU] 63,600 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 100,000 in Nigeria (1973); 754,590 in Chad (1993); 50,000 in Niger (1991); 63,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 1,031,000 in all countries. Mayo-Sava, Diamere, Mayo-Danay and Logone and Chari Division, Far North Province. Mostly between Lake Chad and Kousseri, with some pockets of speakers south of Kousseri. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Trade language. Muslim. NT 1967-1991. Bible portions 1964. 

ATONG [ATO] Extreme northwestern part of Batibo Subdivision, Momo Division, Northwest Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo. Related to Ambele and Busam. Survey needed. 

AWING(AWI, BAMBULUWE) [AZO] Awing-Bambaluwe village, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Dialect: MBWE'WI. 74% lexical similarity with Bamukumbit. Also related to Bafut, Bambili, Kpati, Mendankwe, Ngemba, and Pinyin. Survey needed. 

BABA(PAPIA, BAPA, BAPAKUM) [BBW] 12,750 (1982 SIL). East of Ndop on Ndop Plain, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Speakers refer to their language as Papia. Related to Mungaka. 

BABANKI(KIDZEM, KIDZOM, FINGE, KEJENG) [BBK] Centered around village of Babanki, Tuba Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Survey needed. 

BAFANJI(BAFANYI, BAFANGI, CHUUFI) [BFJ] 8,500 (1982 SIL). South of Ndop on Ndop Plain, Ngo-Ketunjia Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Speakers refer to their language as Chuufi. Closely related to Bamali, Bamenyam, and Bambalang. 

BAFAW-BALONG(NGOE) [BWT] 8,400 (1982 SIL). North of Kumba along Kumba-Mamfe Road, Meme Division, South West Province; also southeast of Ekondo-Titi, Meme Division, South West Province and Moungo Division, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.10), Ngoe. Dialects: BAFAW (BAFO, BAFOWU, AFO, NHO, LEFO'), BALONG (BALON, BALUNG, NLONG, VALONGI, BAYI, BAI). Fairly bilingual in Duala. Language community heterogeneous. Some linguists consider this to be 2 languages. Survey needed. 

BAFIA(RIKPA, LEFA', RIPEY, RIKPA', BEKPAK) [KSF] 60,000 (1991 UBS). Deuk and Bafia subdivisions, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.50). Dialects: BALOM (FAK), KPA, BAPE. Speakers refer to their language as Rikpa and to themselves as Bekpak. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1964-1990. 

BAFUT(BUFE, FU, FUT, BEFE) [BFD] 50,000 (1987 Mfonyam). In Bafut, Tuba Subdivision, Mezam Division; also around the village of Beba, Wum Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Dialects: BUFE (AFUGHE, BAFUT), BEBA' (MUBADJI, BATADJI, BABADJI, BEBADJI, BAZHI, BABA'ZHI, BIBA, SHISHONG, BOMBE). Traditional religion, Christian. Selections 1993. Work in progress. 

BAKA(PYGMY-E, PYGMEE, BEBAYAKA, BEBAYAGA, BIBAYA, PYGMEES DE L'EST, BABINGA) [BKC] 25,000 in Cameroon (1980 Phillips); 3,200 in Gabon (1990 CMA); 28,200 in all countries. Scattered in the southeast of East Province: Boumba and Ngoko, Kadey, and Upper Nyong divisions; Dja and Lobo Division, South Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi. Bayanga of CAR may be a dialect. Nomadic but being encouraged by the government to settle along the roadways. Different from Baka of Zaïre and Sudan. Dictionary. Tropical forest. Work in progress. 

BAKOKO(BASOO) [BKH] 50,000 (1982 SIL). Scattered communities in Littoral Province, south of Douala, Wouri Division; south of Dibombari, Moungo Division; around Nkondjok, Nkam Division; and southwest of Edea, Sanaga-Maritime Division; northwest area of Ocean Division, South Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.40). Dialects: ADIE (ELOG MPOO, BASOO BA DIE, BASOO D'EDEA), BISOO (BASSO, BASOO BA LIKOL, ADIANGOK), MBANG (DIMBAMBANG), YABYANG (YABYANG-YAPEKE), YAKALAK (YAKALAG), YAPOMA, YASSUKU (YASOUKOU, YASUG, YASUKU). 

BAKOLE(BAKOLLE, KOLE, BAMUSSO) [KME] 300 (1982 SIL). Around Bamusso, south of the Meme estuary, Ndian Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.20). May be intelligible with or bilingual in Mokpwe. Survey needed. 

BAKUNDU-BALUE(OROKO-EAST) [BDU] 65,000 (1982 SIL). West, north, and south of Kumba, South West Province: Kumba Subdivision, Meme Division; and eastern Ekondo-Titi Subdivision, Ndian Division. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.10), Oroko. Dialects: BAKUNDU (KUNDU, LAKUNDU, BEKUNDE, BAWO, NKUNDU), BALUE (LOLUE, BARUE, BABUE, WESTERN KUNDU, LUE), MBONGE, EKOMBE (BEKOMBO, EKUMBE). The language community is heterogeneous. The most homogeneous of the subgroups listed are the Bakundu and Balue, for whom separate literature may be needed. It is reported that the Ekombe do not want to be classified with Bakundu. It may be two or three languages. Traditional religion. 

BALDAMU(MBAZLA) [BDN] Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Survey needed. 

BALO [BQO] Akwaya Subdivision. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 60% lexical similarity with Osatu, 40% with Ipulo and Caka, 35% with Esimbi and Mesaka. Pidgin is the speakers' second language. Literacy is in English. Mountains. Traditional religion. Survey needed. 

BALUNDU-BIMA(OROKO WEST) [NGO] 20,000 (1982 SIL). Central part of Ndian Division, southeast and northeast of Mundemba, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.10), Oroko. Dialects: BALUNDU (BARONDO, LONDO, LUNDU), BIMA, DOTANGA (BATANGA-BAKOKO, TANGA), NGOLO (NGORO). Batanga is distinct from Batanga (Banoho) of Bantu A.30, and the Batanga dialect of Caka; Bakoko is distinct from Bakoko of Bantu A.40. The language community is heterogeneous. Survey needed. 

BAMALI(NGOOBECHOP) [BBQ] 5,300 (1982 SIL). South of Ndop, Ngo-Ketunjia Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Speakers refer to their language as Ngoobechop. Related to Bafanji, Bamenyam, Bambalang, Bangolan. 

BAMBALANG(BAMBOLANG, TSHIRAMBO, MBOYAKUM) [BMO] 14,500 (1982 SIL). Southeast of Ndop, Ngdo-Ketunjia Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Speakers refer to their language as Mboyakum. Related to Bafanji, Bamenyam, Bamun, Bamali, Bangolan. 

BAMBILI(BAMBUI) [BAW] 10,000 or fewer (1984 ALCAM). Bambili and Bambui villages east of Bamenda, along Ring Road, Tuba Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Dialects: BAMBILI (MBILI, MBELE, MBOGOE), BAMBUI (MBUI). They associate more with Bafut than with Nkwen and Mendankwe. Inherent intelligibility is low between them and Nkwen and Mendankwe. 15% to 25% literate. Grammar. Survey needed. 

BAMENYAM(MAMENYAN, PAMENYAN, BAMENYAN, MENGAMBO) [BCE] 4,000 (1994 SIL. Around Bamenyam, northwestern Galim Subdivision, Bamboutos Division, West Province; and southeastern Mezam Division, West Province. In the French-speaking area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Bati may be a dialect of Bamenyam. Closely related to Bamali, Bafanji, Bambalang. Some bilingualism in French and Cameroons Pidgin. Stronger commercial links with Mbouda than with Ndop. Traditional religion, Christian. 

BAMUKUMBIT(BAMUNKUM, BAMOUKOUMBIT, BAMENKOUMBIT, BAMENKOMBIT, MANGKONG) [BQT] 7,300 including 4,500 in the village (1987 census). Southwest of Ndop on Ndop Plain, Ngo-Ketunjia Division, Balikumbat Subdivision, North West Province, Bamukumbit village. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. 74% lexical similarity with Awing. Adults can use Bafanji and Bamali. The few educated beyond primary level can use English as a second language. Cameroons Pidgin is generally spoken and understood. Traditional religion, Christian. 

BAMUN(BAMOUN, BAMOUM, BAMUM) [BAX] 215,000 (1982 SIL). Most of Noun Division around Foumban, plus the extreme north of Mifi Division and the extreme southeast of Bamboutos Division, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Has its own script, though not used for current orthography. Related to Bafanji, Bamali, Bambalang, Bangolan. Trade language. Bible 1988. NT 1967. Bible portions 1925-1980. 

BAMUNKA(NDOP-BAMUNKA, BAMUNKUN, NIEMENG, MBIKA, MUKA) [NDO] 15,200 (1982 SIL). Around village of Bamunka, Ndop Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, North. Speakers refer to the language as Niemeng. 

BANA(BAZA, KOMA KA-BANA, PAROLE DES BANA, MIZERAN) [FLI] 13,000 in Cameroon, including 8,000 Gamboura and 5,000 Guili (1987 SIL); 96,000 in Nigeria (1992); 109,000 in all countries. On Nigerian border, north and northeast of Bourrah, Bourrah Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Dialects: GAMBOURA, GUILI (GILI). Bana is called 'Fali' in Nigeria. Work in progress. 

BANGANDU(BAGANDO, BANGANDO, BANGANTU, SOUTHERN BANGANTU) [BGF] 2,700 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Moloundou Subdivision, Boumba and Ngoko Division, East Province. Also in Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest. May be related to Ngombe in CAR. 

BANGOLAN [BGJ] 6,300 to 15,000 (1994 SIL). East of Ndop and south of Jakiri, Ngo-Ketunjia Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. The most distinct linguistically and culturally of the Ndop languages. Most closely related to Bambalang. Cameroons Pidgin used as second language. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. 

BAROMBI(LOMBI, LAMBI, ROMBI, RAMBI, LOMBE) [BBI] 1,300 (1982 SIL). South West Province, north of Mount Cameroon around Lake Barombi-Koto and west of Kumba around Lake Barombi-Mbo, Meme Division; and northeast of Ekondo-Titi, Ndian Division. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.40). May be intelligible with Abo. Survey needed. 

BASAA(BASSA, BASA, BISAA, NORTHERN MBENE, MVELE, MBELE, MEE, TUPEN, BIKYEK, BICEK) [BAA] 230,000 (1982 SIL). Spread all over Nyong-and-Kelle Division, Center Province; and Nkam and Sanaga-Maritime divisions, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.40). Dialects: BAKEM, BON, BIBENG, DIBOUM, LOG, MPO, MBANG, NDOKAMA, BASSO, NDOKBELE, NDOKPENDA, NYAMTAM. 25% to 50% literate. Dictionary. Bible 1969. NT 1939-1967. Bible portions 1922-1967. 

BASSOSSI(BASOSI, BASOSSI, SOSI, NSWASE, NSWOSE, NSOSE, SWOSE, ASOBSE, NGEN) [BSI] Central part of Nguti Subdivision, east and south of Nguti, Kupe-Manenguba Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.10), Ngoe. Related to Mbo. Survey needed. 

BATA(GBWATA, BATTA, GWATE, DII) [BTA] 2,500 in Cameroon; 150,000 Nigeria (1992); 152,500 in all countries. Along the Nigerian border (30 km. northeast of Garoua), along the Benoue River, west of Garoua and along a small section of the Faro River, Benoue Division, North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Dialect: NDEEWE (BATA-NDEEWE). 'Demsa' may be an alternate name or dialect. Bacama dialect is only in Nigeria. 

BATANGA(BANOHO, BANO'O, NOHO, NOHU, NOKU, BANOO) [BNM] 6,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 6,600 Puku in Equatorial Guinea (1993 Johnstone); 12,600 in all countries. Ocean Division, South Province, scattered along the coast around Kribi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bube-Benga (A.30). Dialects: BANO'O (BANOO, BANAKA, BANOKO), BAPUKU (PUKU, NAKA, BAPUU), BATANGA. Different from Batanga of South West Province (Balundu-Bima). Bible portions 1953. Survey needed. 

BATI(BATI BA NGONG, BATI DE BROUSSE) [BTC] 800 (1975 census). 4 villages in the Bati Canton, Ndom Subdivision, Sanaga-Maritime Division, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.40). Most older Bati adults have little problem understanding Basaa, because their schooling used to be in that, and Basaa is used in church. The younger Bati children cannot understand Basaa, because it is not inherently intelligible with Bati. Basaa is not interpreted into Bati in church. Children up to 14 years old are exposed to French for primary education. Secondary education is available only outside the Bati area. Markets are in Bakoko and Yambassa-speaking areas, so those languages are used. Survey needed. 

BEBE(YI BE WU) [BZV] West of Nkambe and north of Ring Road, west part of Ako Subdivision, Donga-Mangung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Eastern. Survey needed. 

BEBELE(BAMVELE) [BEB] 24,000 (1971 Welmers). Minta Subdivision, Upper Sanaga, Center Province, and Diang Subdivision, Lom-and Djeram Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Dialects: EKI, MANYOK. Related to Beti, Bulu, Eton, Ewondo, Fang, Mengisa. Speakers use Beti as second language. Survey needed. 

BEBIL(BOBILIS, GBIGBIL) [BXP] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Around Belabo, Belabo Subdivision, Lom-and-Djerem Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Different from Bebele, although related. Speakers are bilingual in Beti and Bebele. Survey needed. 

BEEZEN [BNZ] 400 (1986 R. Breton). Kpwep (Beezen) village, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified. May be Jukunoid. Bilingualism in Jukun is limited. Cameroon Pidgin is spoken in the area. Isolated, no roads. Mountain slope. Survey needed. 

BEFANG(MENCHUM, BIFANG, BEBA-BEFANG, BIBA-BIFANG) [BBY] Around Befang, straddling Mezam Division, Tuba Subdivision, and Menchum Division, Wum Subdivision, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Menchum. Dialects: MODELE (BEEKURU, IKU, AKU, USHEIDA, MODELLE, MODELI, IDELE, AMBABIKO), USHAKU (MUKURU, MOKURU), BEFANG (GE, BEBA-BEFANG, BIFANG, ABEFANG), BANGUI (BANGWE, BANGWI), OBANG, OKOMANJANG (OKOROMANDJANG). 

BEKWEL(BAKWELE, BAKWIL, BEKWIL, OKPELE) [BKW] 8,000 to 16,000 in all countries (1990). Along the north side of the Ngoko River, at and near Moloundou, Boumba-and-Ngoko Division, East Province. Also in Gabon and mainly in Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialect: ESEL (ESSEL). Closely related to Konabembe. 85% lexical similarity with Koozime. The people use Pongpong as second language. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress. 

BETI [BTB] (2,000,000 including Fang, Ewondo, Bulu, Mengisa, etc.). Major part of Center and South Provinces; also in Lom-and-Djerem, and Upper Nyong divisions, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Consists of a set of 'languages' (Bebele, Bebil, Bulu, Eton, Ewondo, Fang, Mengisa) which are partially intelligible but ethnically distinct. Different from Bette-Bende of Nigeria or the Bete languages of Côte d'Ivoire. Trade language. Bible 1970. NT 1959. Bible portions 1955. 

BIKYA(FURU) [BYB] 1 speaker 70 years old, plus 3 others who have limited proficiency (1986 R. Breton). Furubana village, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified. 24% lexical similarity with Nsaa and Noone (Beboid), 14% with Akum. May be Eastern Beboid. The people are now called 'Furu', and speak Jukun. They were formerly called 'Bikya'. Isolated, no roads. Mountain slope. Nearly extinct. 

BISHUO(BIYAM, FURU) [BWH] 1 speaker over 60 years old, plus 1 partial speaker (1986 R. Breton). Ntjieka, Furu-Turuwa, and Furu-Sambari villages, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified. 16% to 17% lexical similarity with Nsaa and Noone, 11% with Bikya. May be Jukunoid. The people are called 'Furu' and now speak Jukun. There were formerly called 'Biyam'. Isolated, no roads. Mountain slope. Nearly extinct. 

BITARE(NJWANDE, YUKUTARE) [BRE] 3,700 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 50,000 in all countries (1971 Welmers). Near Banyo, Mayo-Banyo Division, Adamawa Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Survey needed. 

BOKYI(BOKI, BYOKI, NKI, OKII, UKI, NFUA, OSIKOM, OSUKAM, VAANEROKI) [BKY] 3,700 in Cameroon; 140,000 in Nigeria (1992 SIL); 144,000 in all countries. Along Nigerian border northwest of Mamfe, Akwaya Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Dialects: BASUA, BOKI, IRUAN. Bible 1987. NT 1978. 

BOMWALI(BOMALI, BOUMOALI, BUMALI, LINO, "SANGASANGA") [BMW] 5,000 or fewer in Cameroon (1991 SIL). Malapa village, east of Moloundou. Also in Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). A distinct language from Bekwel. Survey needed. 

BU [BOE] Villages of Bu, Za, and Ngwen, northeast of Wum, Wum Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Western. Survey needed. 

BUBIA(BOBE, BOBEA, WOVEA, BOTA, EWOTA) [BBX] 600 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Limbe Subdivision, Fako Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.20). Speakers use Duala as second language. Survey needed. 

BUDUMA(YEDINA, YEDIMA, YADENA, BOUDOUMA) [BDM] 200 in Cameroon; 51,600 in Chad (1993); 4,000 in Niger; 3,000 in Nigeria; 58,800 in all countries. Islands of Lake Chad, Logone and Chari Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma. Muslim, traditional religion. Work in progress. 

BULU(BOULOU) [BUM] 174,000 (1982 SIL); second language for as many as 800,000 (1991 UBS). Covers the entire Ntem and Dja-and-Lobo divisions, South Province; the south of Upper Sanaga Division; the north of Nyong-and-Mfoumou Division, Center Province; part of Upper Nyong Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Dialects: YELINDA, YEMBANA, YENGONO, ZAMAN, BENE. Intelligible with Eton, Ewondo, and Fang as part of the Beti group. Formerly used for education, religion, and commerce, but now in decline. Different from Bulu (Sekiyani) of Gabon. 5% to 15% literate. Language of wider communication. Bible 1940. NT 1926. Bible portions 1896-1991. 

BUM(BOM) [BMV] Northern part of Fundong Subdivision, mainly in the villages of Su-Bum and Laa-Bum, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Survey needed. 

BUNG [BQD] 3 (1995 Bruce Connell). Near the Kwanja language. Unclassified. No one uses the language any longer. It may have been a form of Kwanja. Nearly extinct. 

BUSAM [BXS] In villages of Bifang, Ambambo, and Dinku, Batibo Subdivision, Momo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo. It is related to Ambele and Atong. Survey needed. 

BUSUU(AWA, FURU) [BJU] 8 (1986 R. Breton). Furu-Awa and Furu-Nangwa villages, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified. 10% lexical similarity with Jukun languages, 7% to 8% with Beboid languages. May be Jukunoid. The language is only used by older people for reunions. Children learn only Jukun. People are called 'Furu', and now speak Jukun. Formerly called 'Awa'. Isolated, no roads. Mountain slope. Nearly extinct. 

BUWAL(MA BUWAL, BUAL, GADALA) [BHS] 5,000 or fewer (1983 ALCAM). In and around Gadala, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. May be intelligible with Gavar. Speakers closer to Mofu or Gavar regions claim to understand those languages. Fulfulde and French bilingualism is limited. Buwal is used in church. Survey needed. 

BYEP(NORTH MAKAA, MEKA, MAKA, MAKYA, MEKYE, MEKAE, MEKAY, MEKEY, MOKA, MIKA) [MKK] 9,500 (1988 SIL). Essentially the whole northern part of Upper Nyong Division (Messamena, Abong-Mbang, Doume, Nguelemendouka subdivisions); eastern Diang Subdivision (west of Bertoua), Lom and Djerem Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: BYEP, BESEP (BESHA, BINDAFUM). Not intelligible with South Makaa. Related to South Makaa and Kol. 

CAKA [CKX] 5,000 or fewer (1984 ALCAM). Asaka, Basaka, and Batanga villages, Akwaya Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Dialects: ASSAKA (ADZU BALAKA), BATANGA (ADZU BATANGA). 50% lexical similarity with Ipulo, 40% with Balo, Osatu, Icheve, and Otanga, 35% with Esimbi, 30% with Mesaka. Assaka and Batanga have 80% lexical similarity. Speakers use Pidgin as second language. English is used for literacy. Some Ipulo use Caka as second language. Different from Batanga in the Bube-Benga group and the Batanga dialect of Balundu-Bima. Mountains. Traditional religion. 

CUNG [CUG] Northeast of Wum, west of Nkambe, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified. May be Eastern Beboid. Survey needed. 

CUVOK(TCHOUVOK) [CUV] 5,000 or fewer (1983 ALCAM). In and around Tchouvok, Matakam South Canton, near Zamay, Mokolo Subdivision, Maya-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Cuvok used in home, village, and market. There is interpretation from Fulfulde into Cuvok in churches. Limited use of Fulfulde with outsiders and French by the few who have gone to school. Most do not know nearby languages well (Mefele, Mofu South, Mafa). Survey needed. 

DABA(DABBA) [DAB] 35,700 (1982 SIL). Northwest of Guider in Mayo-Oulo and Guider subdivisions, Mayo-Louti Division, North Province; southwestern corner of Diamare Division (Ndoukoula region) and Mayo-Tsanaga Division (Hina and Bourrah subdivisions), Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Dialects: NIVE, POLOGOZOM, KOLA (DABA KOLA, KPALA), MUSGOI (MUSGOY, MAZAGWAY, DABA MOUSGOY). 5% to 15% literate. NT 1992. Bible portions 1984. 

DAMA [DMM] Small group in Rey-Bouba Subdivision, Benoue Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke. May be a dialect of Mono. Survey needed. 

DEK [DEK] North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified. It may be intelligible with Kari or Mbum. Survey needed. 

DENYA(ANYANG, AGNANG, ANYAN, ANYAH, EYAN, TAKAMANDA, OBONYA, NYANG) [ANV] 11,200 (1982 SIL). Central and southern parts of Akwaya Subdivision and northern part of Mamfe Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Partially in Takamanda Forest Reserve. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe. Dialects: BASHO, BITIEKU, TAKAMANDA, BAJWO. Speakers refer to their language as 'Denya'. Detailed survey by SIL 1982-83 shows that it is a dialect cluster with around 70% to 80% lexical similarity between dialects. Kendem is linguistically between Denya and Kenyang. 15% to 25% literate. Work in progress. 

DII(DURU, DOUROU, DURRU, NYAG DII, YAG DII, DUI, ZAA) [DUR] 47,000 (1982 SIL). Plains of Benoue, divided between a small part of Benoue Division and Tchollire Subdivision of Mayo-Rey Division, North Province; north and east of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere Subdivision, Vina Division, Adamawa Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii. Dialects: MAMBE', MAMNA'A, GOOM, BOOW, NGBANG, PHAANI (PANI DUI), SAGZEE (SAADJE, SAAKYE), VAAZIN, HOME, NYOK. Speakers refer to themselves as Yag Dii. Goom is a related dialect or language. EELC grammar, dictionary, primer. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1966. Work in progress. 

DIMBONG(BUMBONG, KALONG, KAALONG, LAKAALONG, MBONG, LAMBONG, BAPE, PALONG) [DII] 140 (1992 SIL). Northwest of Bafia, Mbam Division, Center Province, 2 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.50). Related to Bafia, Hijuk, and Tibea. Comprehension of Bafia is generally acquired at an early age. Comprehension of Yambeta is generalized. Survey needed. 

DOYAYO(DOOHYAAYO, DOWAYAYO, DOYAAYO, DOYAU, DONYAYO, DONYANYO, DOAYO, DOOYAYO, DOOYAAYO, DOWAYO, DOOWAAYO, TUNGA, TUUNO, TUNGBO, NOMAI, "NAMSHI", "NAMCHI", "NAMCI") [DOW] 18,000 (1985 EELC). Northern Poli Subdivision and around Poli, Benoue Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Dowayo. Dialects: MARKE, TEERE (POLI), SEWE. "Namshi" is a derogatory name sometimes used for them. Perhaps 20% of the men are fairly bilingual in Bilkire Fulani for trading and everyday conversation. Perhaps 5% are bilingual in French. People are called 'Doowaayo'. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1991. Bible portions 1979. 

DUALA(DOUALA, DIWALA, DWELA, DUALLA, DWALA) [DOU] 87,700 (1982 SIL). Towards Yabassi and along the Wouri River, Nkam Division; around Dibombari, Moungo Division; around Cameroon estuary, Wouri Division, Littoral Province; and both sides of the Mungo River, Fako Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.20). Dialects: BODIMAN, MUNGO (MUNGU, MUUNGO), OLI (EWODI, OURI, ULI, WURI, WOURI, KOLI), PONGO. It is related to Malimba. 25% to 50% literate. Dictionary. Grammar. Trade language in the western area. Coastal. Christian. Bible 1872-1970. NT 1861-1909. Bible portions 1848-1933. 

DUGWOR(DOUGOUR) [DME] West of Tchere Canton between Maroua and Meri, Meri Subdivision, Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialect: MIKERE. Survey needed. 

DULI(DUI) [DUZ] Near Pitoa, Benoue Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Duli. Extinct. 

DUUPA(NDUUPA, DOUPA, DUPA) [DAE] 5,000 (1991 UBS). East of Poli, Faro and Benoue divisions, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii. Related to Pape. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1982. Work in progress. 

DZODINKA(ADERE, ARDERI, DZODZINKA) [ADD] 2,000 to 2,500 (1994 SIL). Village of Adere, extreme northern part of Nwa Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Possibly in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Speakers consider themselves to be ethnically Mfumte. Different from Adele of Ghana and Togo. 

EFIK(CALABAR, ISANGELE) [EFK] 10,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 360,000 first language speakers in all countries; 3,000,000 total second language speakers (1989). The coast northwest of Limbe and west of Kumba, southwest corner of Ndian Division, South West Province. Primarily in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. 15% to 25% literate. Bible 1868, in press (1995). NT 1862-1947. Bible portions 1850-1866. 

EJAGHAM(EJAGAM, EJAHAM, EKOI, ETUNG, EKWE, EDJAGAM, KEAKA, KWA, OBANG) [ETU] 35,000 in Cameroon; 45,000 in Nigeria; 80,000 in all countries (1982 J. Watters SIL). Whole of Eyumodjok Subdivision and southern part of Mamfe Subdivision west of Mamfe, Manyu Division, South West Province in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Dialects: WESTERN EJAGHAM, EASTERN EJAGHAM, SOUTHERN EJAGHAM (EKIN, KWA, QUA, AQUA, ABAKPA). Western Ejagham includes Bendeghe Etung (Bindege, Dindiga, Mbuma), Northern Etung, Southern Etung, Ekwe, Akamkpa-Ejagham. Eastern Ejagham includes Keaka (Keaqa, Kejaka, Edjagam), Obang (Eeafeng). 15% to 25% literate. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1985. Work in progress. 

ELIP(BELIP, BELIBI, LIBIE) [EKM] 6,400 (1982 SIL); 14,000 together with Mmala and Yangben (1994 SIL). In Yambasa, southeast of Bokito towards the Mbam and Sanaga rivers, Elip canton, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60). French is the language of instruction in primary and secondary education. People do not think French will replace the mother tongue. Interpretation is made into Elip in RC church services. Ewondo or Bulu are used in other churches, without interpretation. Speakers acquire understanding of Mmala and Yangben in early adulthood. It may be possible to standardize a written form with those related languages. Survey needed. 

EMAN(EMANE) [EMN] 800 (1990 SIL). Towns of Amayo, Amanavil, Akalabo, and Akalam Gomo in Akwaya Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. No permanent settlements in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Dialects: AMAYO, AMANAVIL (AMAN, AMANA, AMANI, ELAKA). 70% lexical similarity with Caka, 60% with Ipulo, 40% with Icheve and Otanga, 35% with Esimbi, 30% with Mesaka. Amayo and Amanavil have 80% lexical similarity. Speakers use Pidgin as second language, and also have high bilingualism in Ipulo. May be the same as Emane in Nigeria. Mountains. Traditional religion. Survey needed. 

ENGLISH [ENG] 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Used mainly in South West and North West provinces. Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Along with French, one of the two official languages. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987. 

ESIMBI(ESSIMBI, ISIMBI, SIMPI, AGE, AAGE, BOGUE, MBURUGAM) [AGS] 20,000 (1982 SIL). Western part of Wum Subdivision, centered around Benakuma, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 35% lexical similarity with Balo, Ipulo, and Icheve. 5% to 15% literate. Work in progress. 

ETON [ETO] 52,000 (1982 SIL). Almost all of Lekie Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Dialects: ESSELE, MVOG-NAMVE, MVO-NANGKOK, BEYIDZOLO. Intelligible with Bulu, Ewondo, and Fang as part of the Beti language. Survey needed. 

EVAND(EVANT, AVAND, AVANDE, OVANDE, OVAND, OVANDO, BALEGETE, BELEGETE) [BZZ] 1,000 or fewer in Cameroon (1996 SIL); 10,000 or fewer in Nigeria (1996 SIL); 11,00 or fewer in all countrie. Atolo and Matene I villages, Akwaya Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 50% lexical similarity with Tiv, Icheve, and Otank. Pidgin is the second language. Literacy is in English. Mountains. Traditional religion. Survey needed. 

EWONDO(EWUNDU, JAUNDE, YAOUNDE, YAUNDE) [EWO] 577,700 (1982 SIL). All except the eastern part of Mefou Division; the entire Mfoundi and Nyong-and-So divisions; the southern half of Nyong-and-Mfoumou Division, Center Province; the northern part of Ocean Division, South Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Dialects: BADJIA (BAKJO), BAFEUK, BAMVELE (MVELE, YEZUM, YESOUM), BANE, BETI, FONG, MBIDA-BANI, MVETE, MVOG-NIENGUE, OMVANG, YABEKOLO (YEBEKOLO), YABEKA, YABEKANGA, ENOAH, EVOUZOK. It is intelligible with Bulu, Eton, and Fang as part of the Beti language. 15% to 25% literate. Trade language in central Cameroon. NT 1959-1962. Bible portions 1955-1957. 

FALI, NORTH [FLL] 16,000 (1982 SIL). Around Dourbeye and Mayo-Oulo, Mayo-Oulo Subdivision, Mayo-Louti Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Fali. Dialects: DOURBEYE (FALI-DOURBEYE), BOSSOUM (FALI-BOSSOUM, BONUM), BVERI (FALI DU PESKE-BORI, PESKE, BORI). Speakers are rapidly shifting to Adamawa Fulfulde. Muslim, traditional religion. Survey needed. 

FALI, SOUTH [FAL] 20,000 (1982 SIL). Around Hossere Bapara, Tsolaram, Hossere Toro and Ndoudja; south of Dembo, Pitoa Subdivision northeast of Garoua, Benoue Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Fali. Dialects: FALI-TINGUELIN (NDOUDJA, MANGO, RAM, TORO), KANGOU (KAANG, KANGU, FALI KANGOU), BELE (NGOUTCHOUMI, FALI-BELE, FALI DU BELE-FERE). Different from North Fali, or Fali (Bana) of Nigeria and Cameroon, which is Chadic; or Vin of Nigeria. 5% to 15% literate. NT 1975. 

FANG(PAMUE, PAHOUIN, PANGWE) [FNG] 67,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 12,900 in São Tomé (1993); 858,000 in all countries. Half of Dja-and-Lobo Division (south of Djoum) and southeastern part of Ntem Division (south of Mvangan), as well as between Lolodorf and Kribi, Ocean Division, South Province. Also in Gabon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Dialects: FANG (OKAK), MVAE (MVAN, MVAY), NTOUMOU (NTUMU). Intelligible with Bulu and Ewondo as part of the Beti language group. 15% to 25% literate. Bible 1951. NT 1927. Bible portions 1894-1938. 

FE'FE'(FE'EFE'E, FEEFEE, FEFE, FOTOUNI, BAFANG, BAMILEKE-FE'FE', NUFI) [FMP] 123,700 (1982 SIL). Upper Nkam Division (except for the vicinity of Kekem and a small section in the southeast corner), some in Mifi Division (Bangam), West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: FA' (BAFANG), NKA' (BANKA), NEE (BANA), NJEE-POANTU (BANDJA-BABOUNTOU), NTII (FONDANTI), MKWET (FONDJOMEKWET), LA'FI (BALAFI), TUNGI' (FOTOUNI), NGAM (BANGAN), CA'. First 4 dialects listed belong to Central Fe'fe', next 5 belong to North Fe'fe'. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions. 

FRENCH [FRN] 72,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Used mainly in the Littoral, West, Center, South, East, Adamawa, North, and Far North provinces. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Romance. One of the two official languages, along with English. National language. Bible 1530-1986. NT 1474-1980. Bible portions 1483-1987. 

FULFULDE, ADAMAWA (ADAMAWA FULANI, PEUL, PEULH, FUL, FULA, FULBE, BOULBE, EASTERN FULANI, FULFULDE, FOULFOULDE, PULLO, GAPELTA, PELTA HAY, DOMONA, PLADINA, PALATA, PALDIDA, PALDENA, DZEMAY, ZEMAY, ZAAKOSA, PULE, TAAREYO, SANYO, BIIRA) [FUB] 668,700 in Cameroon, 7% of the population (1986); 5,000,000 in Cameroon including second language speakers (1987 UBS); 90,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 760,000 in all countries or more. Possibly 13,000,000 in all countries all Fulani in all countries (1995 WA). It is spread all over the Far North, North, and Adamawa provinces. Also in Nigeria and Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, Eastern. Dialects: MAROUA, GAROUA, NGAONDÉRÉ, KAMBARIIRE, NOMADIC FULFULDE, BILKIRE FULANI (BILKIRI). There are some serious problems in intelligibility among Cameroon dialects, and elsewhere with Cameroon dialects. Bilkire is spoken by second language speakers. Fulfulde is the language, Fulbe the people. Adamawa is one of the major Fula geo-political states. Dictionary, 2 grammars (Maroua, Ngaoundere dialects). 5% to 15% literate. Trade language in north Cameroon. Typology: SVO. Traditional religion, Muslim. Bible 1983. NT 1963-1964. Bible portions 1919-1966. 

FULFULDE, KANO-KATSINA-BORORRO(PEUL, FULBE) [FUV] North. Also in northern provinces of Nigeria, in Niger, Chad, and CAR. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, East Central. Dialects: KANO-KATSINA, BORORRO (BORORO, MBORORO, AKO, NOMADIC FULFULDE). Muslim. Work in progress. 

FUNGOM(NORTHERN FUNGOM, WE) [FUG] 1,000 (1994 SIL). In Fungom, northeast of Wum, Fungom Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Apparently distinct from Oso (Southern Fungom). May be intelligible with or a dialect of Mmen. 15% to 25% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed. 

GADUWA [GDW] Southwest corner of Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. A newly discovered language (1987). Survey needed. 

GAVAR(GAWAR, GOUWAR, GAUAR, RTCHI, KORTCHI) [GOU] 5,000 (1992 SIL). Around Gawar, Mogode Canton, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. One group of Gavar Hossere live among the Gavar-Fulfulde, and another in relative isolation in the mountains around Kortchi village. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. The Gavar Hossere speak Gavar; the Gavar Fulfulde speak Fulfulde. The Gavar Hossere use their language in home and village, and Fulfulde in the market and for outside contacts. French is learned by the few who go to school. Comprehension of surrounding languages is limited (Mofu South, Mafa, Daba). It may be intelligible with Buwal, but speakers consider them to be different. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion, a few Christians. Survey needed. 

GBAYA, NORTHWEST (BAYA) [GYA] 65,000 to 80,000 or more in Cameroon (1980); 200,000 in CAR (1996); 265,000 to 280,000 in all countries. 131,900 all Gbaya in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Vast area spread out between Mayo-Rey Division (south of Touboro), North Province; Mbere Division (Meiganga Subdivision), Djerem Division (Ngaoundal and Tibati subdivisions), Faro and Deo Division (Tignere Subdivision), Adamawa Province; Lom and Djerem Division (Garoua Boulay, Betare-Oya, and Bertoua subdivisions), Kadey Division (Kette Subdivision), Boumba and Ngoko Division (Gari-Gombo Subdivision), East Province. Also in Congo and Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest. Dialects: BANGINDA, MBAI, GAYMONA, LAI (LAY), LOMBU, MBERE, MOMBE, YAÁYUWEE (YAIWE, KALLA). 5% to 15% literate. Grammar. Dictionary. Primer. Bible in press (1992). NT 1951-1982. Bible portions 1933-1975. 

GBAYA, SOUTHWEST [MDO] 5,000 Mbodomo in Cameroon (1980); 164,000 in CAR (1996); 169,000 or more in all countries. Central Cameroon and western Central African Republic. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest. Dialects: MBODOMO (MBONDOMO), BAGBA, SAMBO, BULI, BOLI OF BIMBA, BOKARE (BOKARI), MBOPALO, BOSOKO, (BOSSOUKA, MBUSUKU) YANGELE (YAANGERE, YAANGELE, YANAGALE), DOOKA (LOSO, MBOPALO, BOLI, TONGO). Work in progress. 

GEMZEK(GEMJEK, GUEMSHEK) [GND] 8,000 to 10,000 (1992 SIL). Eastern edge of Mandara Mts., north of Meri, Tokombere Subdivision, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province, 16 villages. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Slight dialect differences between villages. Related to Zulgwa, and speakers appear to be quite bilingual in Zulgwa. The Meri, Mbuko, Muyang, and Mada languages are in the surrounding areas. 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed. 

GEVOKO(GVOKO, GHBOKO, GAVOKO, KUVOKO, NGOSSI, NGOSHI, NGOSHE-NDHANG) [NGS] (20,000 in Nigeria; 1990). Ngoshi village (different from Nggoshe), north of Tourou, Mololo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. Wolff (1971) separates Gevoko from Guduf and Glavda. Survey needed. 

GEY(GUEVE, GEWE) [GUV] (1,900 in ethnic group; 1982 SIL). East of Pitoa, Benoue Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Gueve. The people are ethnically still somewhat distinct, but the language is extinct. They now speak Fulani. 

GHOMALA'(BANJUN, BANDJOUN, BANJOUN-BAHAM, BALOUM, BATIE, BAMILEKE-BANDJOUN, MANDJU, MAHUM) [BBJ] 260,000 (1982 SIL). Most of Mifi Division (except the extreme south and pockets in the north and west), eastern part of Menoua Division, a pocket in southern Bamboutos Division, and Bamendjou Subdivision, Mifi Division, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: GHOMALA CENTRAL (BANDJOUN, JO, WE, HOM, YOGAM), GHOMALA NORTH (FUSAP, LANG), GHOMALA SOUTH (TE, PA, DENGKWOP), NGEMBA (BAMENJOU, FU'DA, SA, MONJO, MEKA, MUGUM). Bameka, Bansoa, and Balessing are subdialects of South Ghomala'. 25% to 50% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1964. Work in progress. 

GIDAR(GUIDER, GUIDAR, GIDDER, KADA, BAYNAWA) [GID] 65,600 in all countries (1982 SIL); 11,687 in Chad (1993 census). Guider and Figuil subdivisions, Mayo-Louti Division, North Province; a small section of Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C. Dialect: LAM. 5% to 15% literate. NT 1986. Bible portions 1973-1978. 

GIMME(KOMPARA, KOMPANA, KOMA KOMPANA, PANBE, GIMMA) [KMP] 3,000 (1982 SIL). West of Poli along the Nigerian border in the Atlantika Mountains, on Saptou Plain, Faro Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme. Distinct from Koma (Koma Ndera) and Gimnime (Komlama). Their name for the language is 'Gimma'. Speakers' second language is Fulfulde. Church activities in Fulfulde. Work in progress. 

GIMNIME(KADAM, KOMLAMA, GIMBE, KOMA KADAM, LAAME, YOTUBO) [KMB] 3,000 (1982 SIL). Northwest of Poli along Nigerian border, around Wangay in the Atlantika Mountains, Faro Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme. Dialect: RITIME. Distinct from Kadam (Pokoot) of Uganda and Kenya, from Koma (Koma Ndera) and Gimme (Kompara) of Cameroon, but close to Gimme. 

GIZIGA, NORTH (GUIZIGA, GISIGA, GISIKA, TCHERE, MI MARVA, GIZIGA DE MAROUA, DOGBA) [GIS] 20,000 (1982 SIL). North and west of Maroua, in Tchere and Mogazang massifs and neighboring Dogba plains, Meri Subdivision, Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed. 

GIZIGA, SOUTH (GUIZIGA, GISIGA, GISIKA) [GIZ] 60,000 (1991 UBS). Southwest of Maroua, in Diamare plains, Diamare and Kaele divisions, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialects: MUTURAMI (MUTURWA, MUTURUA, GIZIGA DE MOUTOUROUA, LOULOU), MI MIJIVIN (GIZIGA DE MIDJIVIN), RUM. Traditional religion, Christian. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1988. 

GLAVDA(GELVAXDAXA, GALVAXDAXA, GUELEBDA, GALAVDA, VALE) [GLV] 2,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 20,000 in Nigeria (1963); 22,800 in all countries. Around the village of Gelvaxdaxa, south of Ashigashia, on the Nigerian Border, Koza Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. Different from Vale of Chad and Central African Republic, which is Central Sudanic. Wolff (1971) separates Glavda from Guduf and Gevoko. Closely related to Guduf. Bible portions 1967. 

GUDE(GOUDE, MUBI, TCHADE, SHEDE, MAPODI, MAPUDA, MUDAYE, MOCIGIN, MOTCHEKIN, CHEKE, TCHEKE) [GDE] 28,000 in Cameroon; 68,000 in Nigeria (1987); 96,000 in all countries. North and northwest of Dourbeye, straddling the southern part of Bourrah Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province; and the extreme eastern part of Mayo-Oulo Subdivision, Mayo-Louti Division, North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Different dialects are spoken in Cameroon and Nigeria but they are inherently intelligible. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1974-1995. Work in progress. 

GUDUF(GUDUPE, AFKABIYE) [GDF] 21,300 in all countries (1963). On the Nigerian border, Cikide and Guduf, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Mainly in Nigeria. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. Dialects: CIKIDE (CHIKIDE), GUDUF, GAVA (YAGHWATADAXA, YAWOTATAXA). Wolff (1971) separates Guduf from Gevoko and Glavda. 56% lexical similarity with Hedi, 50% with Lamang and Mabas. Closely related to Glavda. Hedi speakers have 35% intelligibility of Guduf. Bible portions 1966. Survey needed. 

GYELE(GIELE, GIELI, GYELI, BAGYELE, BAGIELE, BAJELI, BAJELE, BOGYELI, BOGYEL, BAKO, BEKOE, BAKOLA, BABINGA) [GYI] In forests around Kribi and along the road from Kribi to Lolodorf, Kribi and Lolodorf subdivisions, Ocean Division, South Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Pygmies, dispersed in small groups in the forest. Forest. Bible portions 1969. Work in progress. 

HAUSA(HAOUSSA, HAWSA) [HUA] 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 22,000,000 in all countries (1991); 38,000,000 first and second language speakers (1995 WA). Scattered. Primarily Nigeria. Also Niger, Chad, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Sudan, Burkina Faso. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. EELC grammar, dictionary, primer. Muslim. Bible 1932-1980. NT 1880-1965. Bible portions 1857-1988. 

HEDI(HIDE, TURU-HIDE, XEDI, XADI) [TUR] 10,000 in all countries (1982 SIL); 9,000 in Nigeria (1992 CAPRO). Village of Tourou on Nigerian border northwest of Mokolo, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Dialect: TUR (TURU, TOUROU, FTOUR). 78% lexical similarity with Mabas, 64% with Lamang, 56% with Gevoko. 51% intelligibility of Mabas, 48% of Lamang, 35% of Gevoko. 5% to 15% literate. Work in progress. 

HIJUK [HIJ] 400 (1992 SIL). Southwest of Bokito, Bokito Subdivision, Mbam Division, Center Province, part of 1 village. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.50). ALCAM says it is lexically and morphologically related to the Bafia group (Bafia, Dimbong, and Tibea), but it appears to have 45% lexical similarity to them and 84% to Basaa. Speakers understand Yangben, spoken by part of the people in their village. Some understanding of Basaa and Yambasa. High degree of generalized bilingualism in French. Survey needed. 

HYA(GHYE, ZA) [HYA] Only in Amsa on the Nigerian border, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Closely related to Kamwe of Nigeria and Psikye of Cameroon. Survey needed. 

ICEVE-MACI(ICHEVE, BECHEVE, BECHERE, BACHEVE, OCHEBE, OCEBE, OCHEVE, UTSE, UTSER, UTSEU) [BEC] 5,000 in all countries (SIL). North and south of Akwaya, Manyu Division, South West Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Dialects: ICHEVE (BACHEVE), OLITI (MACI, MATCHI, OLITI-AKWAYA, OLITHI, OLIT, KWAYA, AKWAYA MOTOM, MOTOMO, IHEKWOT). 80% lexical similarity, between Maci and Bacheve, 60% with Otanga, 50% with Evand and Tiv, 40% with Eman and Mesaka, 35% with Esimbi. Speakers use Pidgin as second language; some use Evand, and older males can speak some Denya-Kenyang. Below 5% literate in English. Mountains. Traditional religion. Work in progress. 

IPULO(ASSUMBO, ASUMBO, BADZUMBO) [ASS] 2,500 (1990 SIL). Southeast of Akwaya, Akwaya Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Dialects: OLULU, TINTA, ETONGO. Olulu and Tinta have 90% lexical similarity. 60% lexical similarity with Eman, 50% with Caka, 40% with Balo and Osatu, 35% with Esimbi. Some speakers are bilingual in Pidgin, Eman, or Caka. Communications are difficult in the area. Below 5% literate. Mountains. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion. Work in progress. 

ISU [ISU] 10,400 (1994 SIL). Isu is the main town, Wum Central Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province.Reported to be spread over a wide area up to the Nigerian border. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Little dialect variation. Isu is used in local churches and at home. Speakers use Cameroon Pidgin as second language. Considered to be a distinct language from Aghem and Weh; some comprehension of those languages; may be inherently intelligible. Not the same as Isu (Subu, Bimbia) which is Narrow Bantu A.20. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed. 

ISU(SU, ISUBU, ISUWU, SUBU, BIMBIA) [SZV] 800 (1982 SIL). Around Bimbia estuary east of Limbe and west of Douala, Tiko Subdivision, Fako Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.20). Distinct from Isu which is Grassfields Bantu. Bible portions 1843-1852. Survey needed. 

IYIVE(UIVE, IYIVE, YIIVE) [UIV] 1,000 or less and decreasing (1996 WT). Yive village, northeast of Akwaya on the Nigerian border, Manyu Division, South West rovince. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 75% lexical similarity with Tiv. Survey needed. 

JIMI(DJIMI, JIMJIMEN, 'UM FALIN) [JIM] 3,500 (1982 SIL). On Nigerian border in and around Bourrha, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Also in Nigeria. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Dialects: DJIMI, ZUMO (ZUMU, ZOMO, ZAME), JIMO, WADI (WA'I), MALABU. Different from Jimi of Nigeria in Bauchi State, which is West Chadic. Muslim, traditional religion. Survey needed. 

JINA(ZINA) [JIA] Around Zina and east of Waza near the south of Logone-Birni Subdivision, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina. Dialects: JINA (ZINE), SARASSARA, TCHIDE (SEDE), MUXULE (MUXULI, NGODENI), MAE. Muxule may be a separate language. People in Zina say they understand Lagwan and Musgu better than Muxule. Below 5% literate. Survey needed. 

JUKUN TAKUM (NJIKUM, JUKUN, DIYI) [JBU] 1,700 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton); 40,000 second language speakers in Nigeria (1979 UBS). Ntjieka, Furu-Turuwa, and Furu-Sambari villages, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen, Kpan. Dialects: TAKUM, DONGA (AKPANZHI). The name 'Njikum' is preferred in Cameroon. Trade language for 6,000 people in the area. People are called 'Jukun'. Isolated, no roads. Trade language. Mountain slope. NT 1980. Bible portions 1918. 

KAKO(YAKA, KAKA, NKOXO, DIKAKA, MKAKO) [KKJ] 70,500 in all countries (1982 SIL); 10,400 in CAR (1996). Major part of Kadey Division (Batouri and Ndelele subdivisions), East Province. Also in Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.90). Dialects: MBONJOKU, BESEMBO, BERA, NGBAKO. Different from Kaka (Yamba) which is Grassfields Bantu. 15% to 25% literate. Dictionary. Bible portions 1990-1993. Work in progress. 

KAMKAM(BUNGNU, BUNU, KAKABA, KABBA) [BGU] 1,300 in all countries (1982 SIL). Near Mambila, Adamawa Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila. Traditional religion. Survey needed. 

KANURI, YERWA (KANOURI, KANOURY, BORNU, BORNOUANS, BORNOUAN, KOLE, KOLERE, SIRATA, "BARIBARI", "BERIBERI") [KPH] 56,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 3,000,000 or more in Nigeria (1985); 100,000 or more in Chad (1985); 50,000 in Niger (1991); 3,500,000 in all countries (1987 UBS). Mainly north of Mora between Limani and Bounderi and in Kolofata Subdivision, Mayo-Sava Division; also in Diamare Division (Maroua and Bogo subdivisions); Kaele and Mayo-Danay divisions (as far as Mindif and Guirvidig), Far North Province. Also in Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Dialects: MOVAR, DAGARA, KAGA (KAGAMA), SUGURTI, LARE, KWAYAM, NJESKO, KABARI (KUVURI), NGAZAR, GUVJA, MAO, TEMAGERI, FADAWA, MAIDUGURI. Ajami script used. "Beriberi" is considered a derogatory name. Muslim. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1949. 

KARANG(KARENG, MBUM, MBUM-EAST, LAKA, LAKKA) [KZR] 17,000 in Cameroon, including 7,000 in Sakpu (1991 SIL); 17,000 in all countries or more. In Padjama and from Tcholliere to Touboro, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Also in Chad. Not in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central, Karang. Dialects: SAKPU (PANDAMA, TU'BORO), KARANG, NGOMI, MBERE. Different from Laka (Kabba Laka) of Central African Republic and Chad, and from Laka of Nigeria. Related to Sakpu and Pana. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Traditional religion. Selections 1990. Work in progress. 

KARE(KARRÉ, KARI, KALI) [KBN] (93,000 in CAR; 1996). Around Belel, Vina Division, Adamawa Province; also Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Primarily in Central African Republic. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central, Karang. Dialects: TALE, KARI. Intelligible with Mbum. Different from the Kari of Zaïre, which is Benue-Congo. 5% to 15% literate. NT 1947. Bible portions 1931-1945. 

KEMEZUNG(DUMBO, DZUMBO, KUMAJU) [DMO] Northwest of Nkambe, southwest corner of Ako Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Eastern. Survey needed. 

KENDEM(BOKWA-KENDEM) [KVM] 1,000 (1983 SIL). Villages of Kendem and Bokwa east of Mamfe, Mamfe Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe. A separate language, between Denya and Kenyang. Some people are bilingual in Kenyang and certain dialects of Denya. Survey needed. 

KENSWEI NSEI (BAMESSING, NDOP-BAMESSING, MELAMBA, NSEI, VETENG, VETWENG, CALEBASSES, BEFI, MESING, KENSENSE) [NDB] 12,500 (1982 SIL). Centered around the village of Bamessing, west of Ndop on Ndop Plain, Ndop Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, North. Speakers refer to the language as Nsei. Closely related languages: Vengo, Wushi, Bamunka. 

KENYANG(NYANG, BAYANGI, BANYANG, BANYANGI, BANJANGI, MANYANG) [KEN] 65,000 (1992 SIL). Around and southwest of Mamfe, Mamfe Subdivision, Manyu Division, and eastern corner of Nguti Subdivision, Meme Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe. Dialects: UPPER KENYANG (HAUT-KENYANG), LOWER KENYANG (BAS-KENYANG), BAKONI (UPPER BALONG, NORTHERN BALONG, MANYEMEN, KICWE, KITWII, TWII, MANYEMAN). Upper Balong is distinct from Bafaw-Balong. 15% to 25% literate. Dictionary. Work in progress. 

KERA [KER] 6,000 in Cameroon; 44,523 in Chad (1993 census); 51,000 in all countries. Southeast of Doukoula, Mayo-Danay Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3. 42% lexical similarity with Kwang. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1988-1995. Work in progress. 

KOL(BIKELE-BIKENG, BIKELE-BIKAY, BEKOL) [BIW] 12,000 (1988 SIL), including 1,000 in Bikeng. Vicinity of Messamena, Upper Nyong Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: BIKELE, BIKENG, KOL NORTH, KOL SOUTH. The people use Makaa and Koozime as second languages. Survey needed. 

KOLBILA(KOLBILARI, KOLBILLA, KOLENA, KOLBILI, ZOONO) [KLC] 3,000 (1991 UBS). North Province, Faro Division, Bantadje Canton, southeast of Poli, and some to the east on the main road between Ngaoundere and Garoua. Not in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Related to Chamba Leko. Mountain slope. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1982-1985. Work in progress. 

KOM(NKOM, BIKOM, BAMEKON, ITANGIKOM, KONG) [BKM] 127,000 (1982 SIL). Southern part of Fundong Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Dialect: MBIZENAKU. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions. Work in progress. 

KOMA(KUMA) [KMY] 3,000 in Cameroon (1984 SIL); 32,000 in Nigeria (1989); 35,000 in all countries. Northwest of Tchamba in Atlantika Mts. along Nigerian border, Faro Division, North Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere. Dialects: KOMA NDERA, KOMA DAMTI, LEELU, BANGRU, ZANU, LIU, YERU. Distinct from Gimme (Kompara), Gimnime (Komlama). Related to Vere (Kobo). Different from Komo of Ethiopia and Central Koma of Sudan. 

KOOZIME(NZIME, DJIMU, ZIMU, KONZIME, KOOZHIME, KOONCIMO, DZIMOU) [NJE] 45,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). Around Lomie (north and northwest, south and southeast in Ngoila Subdivision), Upper Nyong Division, East Province. Also in Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: NZIME, BADJOUE (BAJWE'E), NJEME (NDJEME, NGYEME), NDJEM (NJEM, NDZEM, DJEM, DZEM, NYEM). Many Pygmies speak it as a second language. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress. 

KOROP(ODODOP, DUROP, DYUROP, ERORUP) [KRP] 12,500 in all countries (1982 SIL). Northwest of Mundemba, along Nigerian border, Ndian Division, South West Province. Also Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop. Survey needed. 

KOSKIN(KOSHIN, KOSIN, KAW) [KID] Villages of Koshin and Fang, Wum and Menchum subdivisions, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Western. Survey needed. 

KUO(KO, KOH) [KHO] 15,000 or more in all countries (1995 SIL). Between Sorombeo and Chad border, and around Garoua, North Province. Mostly in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central, Koh. Closely related to Karang. Different from Kuo which is Grassfields Bantu. Second generation speakers and refugees only in Cameroon. Basically 3 groups: between Sorombeo and the Chad border around Garoua, and in Chad. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1987-1993. Work in progress. 

KUTEP(KUTEB, KUTEV, MBARIKE, ZUMPER, ATI, "JOMPRE") [KUB] 1,400 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton); 30,000 to 50,000 in Nigeria (1992); 31,000 to 51,000 in all countries. Baji and Lubu villages near the Nigerian border, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. Dialects: JENUWA, LISSAM, FIKYU, KUNABE, KENTIN. Fikyu has subdialects. People are called 'Ati'. "Jompre" is an offensive name. High bilingualism in Jukun. Pidgin is also spoken in the area. Isolated, no roads. 15% to 25% literate. Mountain slope. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1986. 

KWA'(BAKWA, BAKOA, BAMILEKE-KWA) [BKO] 8,600 (1982 SIL). Eastern Nkondjok Subdivision, Nkam Division, Littoral Province, and southwest corner of Nde Division, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: KWA' (BEKWA', BAKOUA, BABWA, MIPA), MBYAM. 'Bamaha' may be an alternate name. Distinct from Kwa (Ba) of Nigeria in the Adamawa branch. Survey needed. 

KWAJA [KDZ] Nkambe Subdivision, Donga-Mentung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Possibly intelligible with or bilingual in other Mfumte languages. Speakers consider themselves to be ethnically Mfumte. Survey needed. 

KWAKUM(AKPWAKUM, ABAKOUM, PAKUM, KPAKUM, BAKUM, ABAKUM) [KWU] 3,700 (1982 SIL). Dimako and Doume subdivisions, Upper Nyong Division; north of Bertoua and in Belabo Subdivision, Lom-and-Djerem Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.90). Dialects: KWAKUM, BETEN (BETHEN, PETEM), TIL, BAKI (MBAKI). Survey needed. 

KWANJA(KONJA, KONDJA) [KNP] 20,000 (1991 UBS), including a few old people who speak the Njanga dialect (1995 Bruce Connell). South of Mayo-Darle, between Banyo and Bankim in the northeastern Tikar Plain, Mayo-Banyo Division, Adamawa Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Konja. Dialects: NYASUNDA, NYANDUNG, NYANJANG (NJANG, NJANGA). 5% to 15% literate. EELC primer. Work in progress. 

LA'BI [LBI] Touboro Subdivision, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, La'bi. The language of initiation rites practised by the Gbaya, Mbum, and some Sara-Laka. Samarin says the vocabulary is borrowed from Sara languages. Second language only. No mother tongue speakers. 

LAGWAN(KOTOKO-LOGONE, LOGONE, LAGWANE, LAGOUANE) [KOT] 38,500 in all countries (1982 SIL). North of Waza National Park in Logone-Birni Subdivision, from the bank of the Logone River across to the Nigerian border, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Also in Chad and Nigeria. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Dialects: LOGONE-BIRNI, LOGONE-GANA (KOTOKO-GANA). Related to Afade, Mser, Malgbe, Maslam, and Mpade. Below 5% literate. Muslim. 

LAIMBUE [LMX] 5,000 (1994 SIL). Several villages, Wum Central Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province, and Fundong Subdivision, Boyo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Dialects: CHA', NYOS. Speakers in Wum Central Subdivision have some knowledge of Aghem. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed. 

LAMNSO'(NSO, NSO', NSAW, NSHO', LAMSO, LAMNSOK, BANSO, BANSO', BANSAW, PANSO) [NSO] 125,000 (1987 SIL). Northeast of Bamenda around Kumbo, eastern Kumbo and Jakiri subdivisions, Bui Division, North West Province. Scattered groups in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East. 15% to 25% literate. NT 1990. 

LETI [LEO] Along the bend of the Sanaga River, northern Sa'a Subdivision, Lekie Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Sanaga (A.60). The Mangisa people are reported to speak two languages: Mengisa-Njowi, spoken daily, and Leti, a secret language of tradition (see Mengisa). Second language only. No mother tongue speakers. 

LIMBUM(LIMBOM, NSUNGLI, NDZUNGLE, NDZUNGLI, NJUNGENE, NSUNGALI, NSUNGNI, LLIMBUMI, WIMBUM, BOJIIN) [LIM] 73,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Entire Nkambe Subdivision around Nkambe and Ndu, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. A few in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Dialects: WIYEH, TANG, WAT. 15% to 25% literate; classes in 6 villages (1995). Grammar. Trade language. Work in progress. 

LONGTO(VOKO, WOKO, BOKO, LONTO, LONGBO, LONGA, GOBEYO) [WOK] 2,400 (1982 SIL). Around Voko, southwest of Poli to Faro Reserve, Faro Division, North Province. Possibly in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Voko. Muslim, Christian. Survey needed. 

LUO [LUW] 1 (1995 Bruce Connell). A section of Atta. Unclassified. Nearly extinct. 

MABAS [VEM] 5,000 or fewer in Cameroon (1984 ALCAM); 10,000 in Nigeria (1993); 15,000 in all countries. Village of Mabas on Nigerian border northwest of Mokolo, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Dialects: VEMGO, VIZIK (VISIK), MABAS. 78% lexical similarity with Hedi, 64% with Lamang, 50% with Gevoko. 56% intelligibility of Lamang, 36% of Hedi. Possibly intelligible with Mafa, or speakers may be bilingual in it or Lamang. Some people speak Hedi. Different from Maba of Chad. 'Maya' may be an alternate name. Survey needed. 

MADA [MXU] 17,000 (1982 SIL). Mada massif at edge of Mandara Mts. and neighboring plain, Tokombere Subdivision, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Distinct from Mada of Nigeria, which is Benue-Congo. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress. 

MAFA("MATAKAM", MOFA, NATAKAN) [MAF] 136,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 2,000 in Nigeria (1963); 138,000 in all countries. From Mokolo north in Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialects: WEST MAFA, CENTRAL MAFA, EAST MAFA. The name "Matakam" has a derogatory connotation in Cameroon. Muktele may be a separate language. Subdialects of West Mafa: Magoumaz, Mavoumay; Central Mafa: Ouzal, Koza, Mokola, Mokolo, Ldamtsai; East Mafa: Soulede, Roua. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1978-1989. NT 1965. Bible portions 1958-1961. 

MAJERA(MIDAH, MIDA'A, DA'A) [XMJ] 5,000 or fewer in Cameroon (1984 ALCAM). Around Majera in extreme southern Logone-Birni Subdivision, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Also in Chad. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina. Dialects: MAJERA (MAZRA), KAJIRE-'DULO, HWALEM (HOLOM). Included in what the Mandage call 'Mida'a' and 'Da'a'. Speakers may be bilingual in Lagwan or Musgu. Below 5% literate. Survey needed. 

MAKAA(MEKAA, SOUTH MAKAA, SOUTH MEKAA) [MCP] 80,000 (1987 SIL). Essentially the whole northern part of Upper Nyong Division (Messamena, Abong-Mbang, Doume, Nguelemendouka subdivisions), East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: BEBENT (BEBENDE, BIKEN, BEWIL, BEMINA), MBWAANZ, SEKUNDA. Related to Byep and Kol. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Selections 1989. Work in progress. 

MALGBE(MALGWE, GULFE, GULFEI, GOULFEI, SANBALBE, MALBE, NGWALKWE) [MXF] 36,000 in all countries (1977 J. Bendor-Samuel SIL). North of Kousseri in a town of Goulfey and Goulfey Subdivision, along the Chari River, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Also in Chad. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Dialects: MALGBE (GOULFEI), MARA, DRO, DOUGUIA. Related to Afade, Mser, Lagwan, Maslam, and Mpade. 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed. 

MALIMBA(MULIMBA, MUDIMA, LIMBA, LEMBA) [MZD] 4,500 (1982 SIL). Small pocket north of Edea, and also around the mouth of the Sanaga River, Sanaga-Maritime Division, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.20). May be intelligible with Duala. Survey needed. 

MAMBAI(MANGBAI, MANGBEI, MANBAI, MAMBAY, MAMGBAY, MAMGBEI, MONGBAY) [MCS] 2,500 in all countries (1982 SIL). Along Mayo-Kebi River near the Chad border in extreme northern Bibemi Subdivision, Benoue Division, North Province. Also in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Mundang. Survey needed. 

MAMBILA, CAMEROON (MAMBILLA, MAMBERE, NOR, TORBI, LAGUBI, TAGBO, TONGBO, BANG, BLE, JULI, BEA) [MYA] 30,000 (1993 UBS). On Nigerian border in northwestern Mayo-Banyo Division (Banyo and Bankim subdivisions), Adamawa Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila. Dialects: JU BA, SUNU TORBI (TORBI), JU NAARE (MAMBILA DE GEMBU). Closely related language: Mvanlip (Magu) in Nigeria. Close to Mambila of Nigeria, but distinct. Dialects form a chain; one end unintelligible to the other. Below 5% literate. Dictionary. Traditional religion, Muslim. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress. 

MANTA(MENTA, AMASI, AMASSI, BANTAKPA, BANTA, ANTA) [MYG] 13,600 (1982 SIL). Approximately 20 villages in a 40 km. stretch in Manyu Division northeast of Mamfe, from the border of Mom (Akwaya Subdivision) to Manta (Mamfe Subdivision), South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Survey needed. 

MASANA(MASA, MASSA, WALIA, "BANANA") [MCN] 103,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 109,093 in Chad (1993 census); 212,000 in both countries. Around Yagoua, southeastern Mayo-Danay Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Dialects: YAGWA (YAGOUA), DOMO, WALYA, BONGOR, WINA (VIRI), GIZAY (GUISSEY), BUDUGUM. All dialects understand Yagoua well. The first three dialects listed are West Masa, Wina and Gizay are Central Masa. Budugum has 97% lexical similarity to the closest other dialect. Below 5% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1950-1955. Bible portions 1934-1985. 

MASLAM [MSV] 5,000 or fewer in Cameroon (1984 ALCAM); possibly only a few hundred in Chad (1995). In Maltam and Saho northwest of Kousseri, Makari Subdivision, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Dialects: MASLAM (MALTAM), SAO (SAHU). Related to Afade, Mser, Lagwan, Malgbe, and Mpade. Speakers may be able to use literature in one of those languages. Survey needed. 

MATAL(MOUKTELE, MUKTILE, MUKTELE, BALDA) [MFH] 18,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern edge of Mandara Mountains, to the south, southwest of Mora, Mora Subdivision, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. NT 1989. 

MBE'(MBO, MBAW) [MTK] Canton of Mbo, Nwa Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. People are shifting to Tikari outside of the home. Distinct from Mbe of Nigeria, which is in the Ekoid group. Survey needed. 

MBEDAM [XMD] Northeast of Hina, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Survey needed. 

MBEMBE, TIGON (TIGUM, TIGON, TIGONG, TIGUN, TIKUN, AKONTO) [NZA] 36,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 20,000 in Nigeria (1987); 56,000 in all countries. North of Nkambe, Ako Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe. Dialects: ASHUKU (KITSIPKI), NAMA (DAMA, NAMU), NZARE (NDZALE, NSARE, IZALE, IZARE, NJARI), KPORO, ENEEME. Entirely different from Mbembe of Nigeria which is in Cross River group. 15% to 25% literate. Traditional religion. 

MBO(MBOO) [MBO] 70,500 (1982 SIL). Large part of Moungo Division (except for Dibombari Subdivision), Littoral Province; Menoua Division (Santchou Subdivision) and Upper Nkam Division (Kekem Subdivision), West Province; Kupe-Manenguba Division (Nguti Subdivision), South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.10), Ngoe. Dialects: BABONG (IHOBE MBOG), BAREKO (EHOW MBA), BANEKA (MWANEKA), BAKAKA (EHOB MKAA), MANEHAS (MWAHED), BALONDO (EHODE BELON), MOUAMENAM, BONGKENG, MANENGOUBA (MANENGUBA), SAMBO, NKONGHO (KINKWA, LEKONGO, UPPER MBO), MIENGE, MBWASE NGHUY (BAFUN). Related to Akoose and Bassossi. Distinct from Mbo of Zaïre, which is Bantu D.30. The dialects form 2 or 3 languages. 15% to 25% literate. Dictionary. Work in progress. 

MBODOMO(GBAYA-MBODOMO, BAYA-BODOMO, BODOMO) [QMF] 8,000 to 10,000 (1994 EELC). The Yangamo-Garga Sarali dialect has the largest population. Ngoura District, Bétaré-Oya Subdivision, Lom and Djerem Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya, Gbaya. Dialects: YANGAMO-GARGA-SARALI, PETIT-BELO-DOUMBA. Vigorous language use. The subdialects have high inherent intelligibility with each other. French is used as a second language by a relatively small number mainly by men who have been educated. Fulfulde is used in the markets. Proficiency is greater where there are more Fulani. Yangamo has a 30% Fulani population. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress. 

MBONGA(MBOA) [XMB] Near Betare-Oya, Lom-and-Djerem Division, East Province. Not in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon. Survey needed. 

MBUKO(MBUKU, MBOKU, MBOKOU) [MQB] 6,700 (1982 SIL). Mbuko massif and neighboring Mayo-Raneo plain, Meri Subdivision east of Meri, Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. 'Mbuko' is the name speakers use. 5% to 15% literate. Work in progress. 

MBULE(DUMBULE, MBOLA) [MLB] Mbola village in southern part of Bokito Subdivision, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60). Intelligibility with Yangben and Nu Baca is not fully determined. Related to Nu Baca, Elip, and Mmaala. Survey needed. 

MBUM(MBOUM, MBOUMTIBA, WUNA, BUNA) [MDD] 38,600 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 12,500 in CAR (1996); 51,000 in all countries. West Mbum is spread out in isolated groups: south and southwest of Ngaoundere (Vina and Djerem divisions, Adamawa Province); around Ngaoundere to border of Faro Reserve in Faro Division, North Province. Gbete is in Belabo Subdivision, Lom-and-Djerem Division, East Province. Not in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern. Dialects: MBOUM (WEST MBUM, BUM), GBETE (KEPERE, KPERE, PERE, RIPERE, BYRRE, PONO, VANA). Speakers are rapidly becoming bilingual in Fulani. 5% to 15% literate. EELC grammar, dictionary, primer. Muslim, traditional religion. NT 1965. Bible portions 1936-1965. 

MEDUMBA(BAGANGTE, BANGANGTE, BAMILEKE-MEDUMBA) [BYV] 210,000 (1991 UBS). Major part of Nde Division (Tonga Subdivision and Bangangte Subdivision east of Bangangte), West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialect: BATONGTOU. 15% to 25% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1992. NT 1967. Bible portions 1948-1960. 

MEFELE(BULA, BULAHAI, BOULAHAY) [MFJ] 10,000 or more (1992 SIL). South and east of Mokolo, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province, 6 villages. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialects: MEFELE, SERAK (SIRAK), MUHURA (MOUHOUR), SHUGULE (CHOUGOULE). Vigorous language use in family and village life. Bilingualism in Fulfulde is increasing by those who travel, and in French by the few children in school. Bilingualism in Mafa appears to be increasing among the children, who learn it at school and market. Survey needed. 

MELOKWO(MOLOKWO, MOLOKO, MOKYO, MOLKOA, MOLKWO, MOLKO) [MLW] 8,500 (1992 SIL). On Melokwo Mountain and in the plains around its base, Makalingay Canton, Tokombere Subdivision, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Only one dialect. Melokwo is used in all domains of daily living. Surrounded by 4 related languages (including Muyang, Giziga North, and the Mikiri dialect of Dugwor) plus one other. Little bilingualism except in outlying areas where there has been intermarriage with speakers of other languages. Fulfulde is used in the market, but interpretation is necessary when it is used in church. A few educated speakers can use French. Christian. 

MENDANKWE(MANDANKWE) [MFD] 10,000 or more (1984 ALCAM). North and east of Bamenda, either side of Ring Road and in the mountainous circle of Menda Nkwe, Tuba Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Dialects: NKWEN (BAFRENG), MENDANKWE (MUNDA, BAMENDA). Related to Ngemba, Bafut, Pinyin, Awing, and Bambili. Speakers may have functional understanding of the Mankon dialect of Ngemba. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed. 

MENGAKA(GHAP, BENZING, MEGAKA, BAMILEKE-MENGAKA) [XMG] 20,000 (1993 SIL). Bagam, Galim, and Bamendjing, Southern Galim Subdivision, Bamboutos Division, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: BAGAM, BAMENDJING (BAMENDJIN). 91% lexical similarity among villages, but speakers report no dialect differences. Interest in language development for schools and individual literacy. Distinct from Mungaka (Bali) which is Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Some bilingualism in French among younger speakers and Bamun among older ones. Survey needed. 

MENGISA(MANGISA, MENGISA-NJOWE) [MCT] 20,000 (1979 SIL). Along the bend of the Sanaga River between the river and Sa'a, Sa'a Subdivision, Lekie Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). May be intelligible with Ewondo. The Mangisa people are reported to speak 2 languages: Mengisa Njowi, spoken daily and Leti, a secret language of tradition. Survey needed. 

MENKA [MEA] 12,500 (1982 SIL). West of Mbwengi, northwest of Batibo, Batibo Subdivision, Momo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Survey needed. 

MEREY(MERI, MERE, MOFU DE MERI) [MEQ] 10,000 (1982 SIL). West of Meri on Meri Massif, Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialect: DUGUR. 5% to 15% literaate. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress. 

MESAKA(UGARE, MESSAGA, MESSAGA-EKOL, MESSAKA, IYON, BANAGERE) [IYO] 14,000 (1982 SIL). On the Nigerian border northeast of Akwaya, Manyu Division, South West Province, in an isolated area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Dialect: BATOMO (BABASI). 'Banagere' is the name used by the people for themselves, 'Ugare' for their language. 'Mesaka' is used by the government, 'Iyon' by the Tiv. 70% lexical similarity with Tiv. Batomo may be a separate language, or may be the same as Motomo (Oliti, Matchi), a dialect of Icheve. 5% to 15% literate. Mountains. Traditional religion. Work in progress. 

META'(MOGHAMO-MENEMO, MENEMO-MOGAMO, WIDIKUM-TADKON, CHUBO, BATIBO, METTA, BAMETA, MUTA, MITAA) [MGO] 87,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern and southeastern Mbengwi and eastern Batibo subdivisions, Momo Division; around villages of Bafuchu and Nja, Bamenda Subdivision, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Dialects: MENEMO (METTA, META', UTA', BAMETA), MOGHAMO (MUYWI, IYIRIKUM, WIDEKUM, TIWIRKUM, BATIBO, BESI, KUGWE). 50% to 75% literate. Ngamambo is a separate language. Work in progress. 

MFUMTE(NFUMTE) [NFU] 24,700 (1982 SIL). 14 villages, mostly in canton of Mfumte north of Nwa and east of Nkambe, Nwa Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Dialects: LUS, KOM, MBALLA, BANG, KOFFA (KOFA), JUI, MBAT, MANANG, MBIBJI, MBAH. 5% to 15% literate. Christian, traditional religion. 

MINA(HINA, BESLERI) [HNA] 8,000 to 10,000 (1992 SIL). South of Mokolo, Hina Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province, 20 villages. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Dialects: BESLERI, JINGJING (DZUMDZUM), GAMDUGUN. Mina is used vigorously in daily life. Fulfulde is used at the market. French is learned in school, but few children attend school. Speakers are not generally bilingual in Daba. Muslim, traditional religion. 

MISSONG(MIJONG) [MIJ] Centered around village of Missong, including villages of Munken, Aba, Mundabi, Mufu; Wum Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Western. 'Dzaiven Boka' may be an alternate name. Survey needed. 

MMAALA(MMALA, BENYI) [MMU] 5,300 (1982 SIL); 14,000 together with Elip and Yangben (1994 SIL). In and south of Bokito, Mmala canton, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60). French is used for instruction in primary and secondary school. Speakers do not think French will replace Mmaala. Interpretation into Mmaala is made in RC church services. Ewondo or Bulu are used in other churches. Speakers acquire understanding of Elip and Yangben in early adulthood. A standardized written form may be possible with those two related languages. Survey needed. 

MMEN(BAFMEN, BAFUMEN, BAFMENG, BAFOUMENG, MME) [BFM] Along the Fundong Road northwest of Fundong, Wum Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Possibly intelligible with other Center Ring languages. Survey needed. 

MOFU, NORTH (MOFU-DOUVANGAR, DOUVANGAR) [MFK] 27,500 (1982 SIL). Massifs south of Meri, Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialects: DOUROUN (MOFU DE DOUROUM, DURUM), WAZAN (WAZANG). 5% to 15% literate. NT 1975. Work in progress. 

MOFU, SOUTH (MOFOU, MOFU-MOKONG, MOFU-GUDUR, MOFOU DE GOUDOUR, MOKONG, ZIDIM, NJELENG, MOFU-SUD) [MIF] 30,000 (1987 SIL). Massifs south of Tsanaga River to the Mayo-Louti, Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division extending into Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialects: DIMEO, GUDAL, MASAGAL (MASSAKAL). 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Bible portions 1985-1995. Work in progress. 

MOKPWE(BAKWERI, BEKWIRI, BAKPWE, BAKWEDI, BAKWELE, VAKWELI, KWEDI, KWELI, KWILI, KWIRI, MOKPE, VAMBENG, UJUWA) [BRI] 32,200 (1982 SIL). A large part of the Fako Division (Muyuka, Tiko, Buea, and Limbe subdivisions), South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.20). Reported to include Wumboko. Widespread use of Pidgin and Duala. Literature may serve Wumboko, Bubia, and Isu. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed. 

MOM JANGO (VERE, VERRE, WERE, KOBO) [VER] 4,000 in Cameroon; 88,000 in all countries (1992). North of Tchamba on Nigerian border, Beka Subdivision, Faro Division, North Province. Mainly in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere. 

MONO(MON-NON) [MRU] 1,100 (1982 SIL). North of Rey-Bouba around Kongrong along the Mayo-Godi River, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke. Distinct from Mono in Zaïre in Banda group. Related to Dama. Survey needed. 

MPADE(MAKARI, MENDAGE, MANDAGE, MANDAGUÉ) [MPI] 12,000 in all countries (1992 SIL). Centered around Makari next to Lake Chad, and Goulfey along the Chari River, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Also in Chad and Nigeria. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Dialects: SHOE (SHAWE, CHAOUE, SCHOE, MANI), MPADE (MAKARI), BODO, WOULKI, DIGAM. Shoe dialect is only in Cameroon. Close to Lagwan. Related to Afade, Mser, Malgbe, and Maslam. 5% to 15% literate. 

MPIEMO(MBIMU, MBIMOU, MPYEMO, MBYEMO, MPO, BIMU) [MCX] 5,000 in Cameroon (1991 SIL); 35,000 in CAR (1991 SIL); 40,800 in all countries. Gari-Gombo Subdivision along the road from Gribi to Yokadouma, Boumba-and-Ngoko Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: JASUA (JASOA), BIDJUKI (BIDJOUKI). The Jasua dialect is spoken by most people and is well understood by others. Used in church together with Pongpong. The people are functionally monolingual. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. 

MPONGMPONG(MPOMPO, BOMBO, MPOPO, MBOMBO, PONGPONG) [MGG] 45,000 (1991 SIL). Menzime and Bangantu are south of Batouri in Mbang Subdivision, Kadey Division, and the other dialects are south and west of Yokadouma, covering most of the Boumba-and-Ngoko Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: MBOBYENG (POBYENG), MENZIME (MEDZIME, MEZIME, MENDZIME), BAGETO (BAAGATO, BANGANTU, NORTHERN BANGANTU), KUNABEMBE (KONABEMBE, NKUMABEM, KUNABEEB, KONABEM), MPOMAM (BOMAN, MBOMAN). Has been used on national radio. The people are functionally monolingual. Few understand Ewondo. 5% to 15% literate. 

MSER(KOTOKO-KUSERI, KUSERI, KOUSERI, KOUSSERI, MANDAGE) [KQX] 2,100 in all countries (1982 SIL). Kousseri Subdivision, Logone-and-Chari Division, Far North Province. Also in Chad. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Dialects: MSER (KOUSSERI), KALO (KALAKAFRA), GAWI, HOULOUF, KABE. Related to Afade, Lagwan, Malgbe, Maslam, and Mpade. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed. 

MUMUYE(MOME, NYA KOPO) [MUL] 400,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Benoue Division, North Province. Primarily in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. May be only in Nigeria. 15% to 25% literate. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1995. Bible portions 1938. 

MUNDANG(MOUNDANG, MOUNDAN, KAELE, NDA, MARHAY, MUSEMBAN) [MUA] 44,700 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 160,880 in Chad (1983 census); 205,000 in all countries. Near Chad border to north and west of Kaélé, Kaélé Subdivision, Kaélé Division, Far North Province; south of Mayo-Kebi near Chad border, Benoue Division, North Province. The Torrock-Kaélé subdialect of Zasing is spoken in Kaélé, Cameroon and Torrock, Cameroon. Also in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai. Dialects: KIZIERE, IMBANA (BANA, MBANA, IMBARA), ZASING (YASSING, DJASING, YASING, JASING, ZAZING), GELAMA. Gelama may be a separate language. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. Braille code available. Bible 1983. NT 1948-1956. Bible portions 1933-1941. 

MUNDANI [MUN] 34,000 (1987 SIL). South of Batibo, Mamfe and northern Fontem subdivisions, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Dialects: BAMUMBO (BAMUMBU), BECHATI, BESALI, BANTI, FOLEPI, IGUAMBO (IGUMBO), BANGANG, NKO (NKONG). 25% to 50% literate. Dictionary. Mountain slope. Bible portions 1989-1990. Work in progress. 

MUNGAKA(BALI, LI, NGAAKA, NGA'KA, MUNGA'KA) [MHK] 50,100 (1982 SIL). Bali Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province; southeastern Galim Subdivision, Bamboutos Division and northern Bafoussam Subdivision, Mifi Division, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Dialects: BALI NYONGA (BALI), TI (BATI), NDE (BANDENG). Ti may be a dialect of Bamenyam. People are called 'Bali'. Different from three languages in Zaïre called 'Bali', Bali of Nigeria, or Bali which is a dialect of Chamba of Nigeria and Cameroon, although many of these people have Chamba ethnic origins. Related to Baba. 25% to 50% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1961. NT 1933. Bible portions 1929-1952. 

MUNGONG(MUNGOM) [XMN] Northeast of Wum, west of Nkambe, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified. May be Eastern Beboid. Survey needed. 

MUSEY(MOUSSEI, MUSEI, MUSSOI, MOUSSEY, MUSSOY, MOSI, BANANNA, BANANNA HO HO, MUSEYNA, MUSIINA, MUSAYNA, MUSOI) [MSE] 20,000 in Cameroon; 100,000 in Chad; 120,000 in all countries (1986 R. Duncanson EFL). East of Guere on Chad border, Mayo-Danay Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Dialect: PE. Pe dialect is in Cameroon. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion. NT 1996. Bible portions 1967-1986. 

MUSGU(MOUSGOU, MOUSGOUN, MUSGUM, MOUSGOUM, MUSUK, MUZUK, MUNJUK, MULWI) [MUG] 61,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 85,908 in all countries (1972 Nida). Entire Maga Subdivision, Mayo-Danay Division, Far North Province. Also in Chad. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2. Dialects: MPUS (PUS, POUSS, MOUSGOUM DE POUSS), BEEGE (JAFGA), VULUM (VLUM, MULWI), NGILEMONG, LUGGOY, MANILING (MANI-ILING), MUZUK (MOUSGOUM DE GUIRVIDIG). Call themselves 'Mulwi'. Vulum dialect is mainly in Chad. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion, Muslim. NT 1964. 

MUYANG(MYAU, MYENGE, MUYENGE, MOUYENGE, MOUYENGUE) [MUY] 15,000 (1982 SIL). Muyang, Mougouba, Gouadagouada, and Palbarar massifs, northeast of Tokombere, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. 

NAGUMI(BAMA, MBAMA) [NGV] Formerly spoken in Garoua Subdivision between Benoue and Faro rivers and Poli Mts., Benoue Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon. Voegelin and Voegelin (1977.55) say this was the same as Ngong. Extinct. 

NAKI(MEKAF, MUNKAF, NKAP, BUNAKI) [MFF] 3,000 including 300 in Nse chiefdom (1986 R. Breton). Bukpang II and Lebo villages, Nse chiefdom, Furu-Awa Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Western. In Nse chiefdom they speak Nsaa and are called 'Bunsaa'. Limited bilingualism in Nse and Lebo, although Jukun is the trade language. In Bukpang II few speak Jukun. Pidgin is used in the area. The people are called 'Bunaki'. Survey needed. 

NCANE(NCHANTI, NTSHANTI, CANE) [NCR] In and south of Misaje village, western Nkambe Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Eastern. Survey needed. 

NDAI(GALKE, PORMI) [GKE] Only a few speakers left. Tchollire, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke. Nearly extinct. 

NDAKTUP [NCP] Northeast of Nkambe, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Dialects: NCHA, BITUI (BITWI). Possibly intelligible with or bilingual in other Mfumte languages. Speakers consider themselves to be ethnically Mfumte. Survey needed. 

NDA'NDA'(BAMILEKE-NDA'NDA') [NNZ] 10,000 or more (1984 ALCAM). Straddling Upper Nkam (east of Bana), Nde (north and west of Bangante), and Mifi (south of Bangou) divisions, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: UNDIMEHA (EAST NDA'NDA), UNGAMEHA (WEST NDA'NDA'-SOUTH NDA'NDA'). 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed. 

NDEMLI(NDEMBA, BANDEM, BAYONG) [NML] Between Yabassi, Yingui, and Nkondjok, Nkam Division, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ndemli. Related to Tikar and Bandobo. May be the same as Bandobo. Survey needed. 

NDOOLA(NDORO, NJOYAME, NUNDORO) [NDR] 1,300 in Cameroon; 50,000 in all countries (1992). Dodeo village near the Nigerian border, on the upper Mayo-Deo River, southern Mayo-Baleo Subdivision, Faro-and-Deo Division, Adamawa Province; and north of Nkambe, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Primarily in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro. Survey needed. 

NGAMAMBO(MBU, MUNGYEN, BAFUCHU, BANJA, NGA, NGEMBO) [NBV] Eastern and southeastern Mbengwi and eastern Batibo subdivisions, Momo Division; around villages of Bafuchu and Nja, Bamenda Subdivision, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. 50% to 75% literate. A separate language from Meta'. Survey needed. 

NGAMBAY(SARA, SARA NGAMBAI, GAMBA, GAMBAYE, GAMBLAI, NGAMBAI, GAMBAI) [SBA] 600,000 in all countries (1991 UBS). Near the Chad border east of Tchollire, Rey-Bouba Subdivision, Mayo-Rey Division, along the route to Garoua, in Garoua, Benoue Division, North Province. Primarily in Chad, some in Nigeria. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. 5% to 15% literate. Bible 1993. NT 1954-1968. Bible portions 1936-1976. 

NGEMBA(MEGIMBA, MOGIMBA, NGOMBA, NGUEMBA) [NGE] 70,000 (1982 SIL). Tuba and western Bamenda subdivisions, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Dialects: BAGANGU (AKUM), NJONG (BANJONG), MBUTU (BAMBUTU, ALAMATU, MBOTU), SONGWA (NSONGWA, BANGWA, NGWA), MANKON (BIDA), MOMBU, SHOMBA (BAMECHOM, ALMATSON), MANGKUNGE (NGEMBA, BANDENG, BANDE, BANDE', NKUNE, MUKOHN), MBREREWI (MUNDUM 1, BAMUNDUM 1), ANYANG (MUNDUM 2, BAMUNDUM 2), ALATENING (ALATINING). Mundum, Mbrerewi, and Anyang may constitute a separate language. Related to Bafut, Mandankwe, Pinyin, Awing. Distinct from Ngyemboon (Nguemba). Cameroon Pidgin is the second language used. Survey needed. 

NGIE(NGI, ANGIE, BANINGE, BAMINGE, MINGI, UGIE, UNGIE) [NGJ] 31,000 (1982 SIL). Western Mbengwi Subdivision around Andek, Momo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed. 

NGIEMBOON(NGUEMBA, NGYEMBOON, BAMILEKE-NGYEMBOON) [NNH] 100,000 (1987 SIL). Batcham Subdivision and in Balatchi in western Mbouda Subdivision, Bamboutos Division; north of Penka-Michel, Menoua Division, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: BATCHAM, BALATCHI, BAMOUNGONG. Distinct from Ngemba. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1984. Work in progress. 

NGISHE(OSHIE) [NSH] 5,000 (1984 ALCAM). Eastern Njikwa Subdivision, Momo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Dialects: MISE, OSHIE. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed. 

NGOMBA(NDAA, NDA'A, BAMILEKE-NGOMBA) [NNO] 10,000 to 20,000 (1994 SIL). Southeast of Mbouda, southern Mbouda Subdivision, Bamboutos Division, West Province. 5 villages; each a separate dialect. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: BAMENDJINDA, BAMENKUMBO, BAMESSO, BABETE (BAMETE), BAMENDJO. Dialect speakers appear to understand each other well; Bamendjinda, Bamesso, and Bamenkumbo are the most similar. Nda'a is their name for themselves. Ngomba is used by all in the 5 towns in all domains. Interest expressed in language development. Church languages are Ngomba, French, Ngyembong, Medumba, or Bafunda. Bafounda is a separate town and language (see Ghomala), but ethnically Nda'a. Distinct from Ngumba in the Maka-Njem group. 15% to 25% literate. Work in progress. 

NGOMBALE(BAMILEKE-NGOMBALE) [NLA] 45,000 (1993 SIL). Northwest of Mbouda, northern Mbouda Subdivision, Bamboutos Division, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: BABADJOU (BASSO, NCHOBELA), BAMESSINGUE (BASSING). Ngombale is used in all domains, including church. Interest expressed in language development. Many adults are reported to be bilingual in Ngomba and Ngyemboon, and young people in French. 15% to 25% literate. Traders. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed. 

NGONG(GONG, PUURI) [NNX] 2 (1983 Atlas Linguistique du Cameroun). Ngong village, south of Garoua on road to Ngaoundere, Benoue Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon. Voegelin and Voegelin (1977.55) say this is the same as Nagumi. Nearly extinct. 

NGUMBA [NMG] 17,500 in all countries (1982 SIL); 8,900 in Equatorial Guinea (1993 Johnstone). In forests around Kribi and along the road from Kribi to Lolodorf, Kribi and Lolodorf subdivisions, Ocean Division, South Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: KWASIO (KWASSIO, BISIO), MVUMBO (NGUMBA, NGOUMBA, MGOUMBA, MEKUK), MABI (MABEA). Distinct from Ngomba, which is in West Province. 5% to 15% literate. Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions 1957. 

NGWE(NWE, FONTEM, FOTO, FONGONDENG, FOMOPEA, BAMILEKE-NGWE) [NWE] 50,000 (1992 SIL). Most of Fontem Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Part of a language continuum which includes Yemba and Ngyemboon. Survey needed. 

NGWO(NGWAW) [NGN] 31,000 together with Ngishe (1982 SIL). Njikwa Subdivision, Momo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Dialects: NGWO (NGUNI, NGWAW, MIGUHNI, NGUNU), KONDA, BASA (BASSA), IKWERI (EKPERI), BANYA, BAKO, OKOROBI, ZANG. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed. 

NIMBARI(NYAMNYAM, NIAMNIAM, BARI, NIMBARI-KEBI, NYAM-NYAM DU MAYO-KEBI) [NMR] Near Pitoa, Benoue and Mayo-Louti divisions, North Province. None in Chad or Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Nimbari. Different from Suga (Nyamnyam). Survey needed. 

NJEN(NYEN) [MEN] Southeast of Batibo, Momo Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Survey needed. 

NOMAANDE(NOOMAANTE, NUMAND, LEMANDE, MANDI, MANDE, PIMENC) [LEM] 6,000 (1982 SIL). Southwest of Bafia, western and northern Bokito Subdivision, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.40). 25% to 50% literate. Dictionary. Bible portions 1994. Work in progress. 

NOONE(NONI, NOORI) [NHU] 35,000 (1991 D. Lux SIL). Northwestern Kumbo Subdivision, Bui Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Eastern. 25% to 50% literate. Work in progress. 

NSARI(AKWETO, PESAA, SALI) [ASJ] On both sides of Ring Road between Misaje and Nkambe, western part of Nkambe Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid, Eastern. May be intelligible with or bilingual in other Eastern Beboid languages. Survey needed. 

NUBACA(BANGO, BONGO, BACA, NU BACA) [BAF] 800 (1994 SIL). 4 quarters, village of Bongo, south of Yangben, Yangben Canton, Bokito Subdivision, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60). No significant dialect differences. Not intelligible with other Yambassa language varieties. Related to Elip, Dumbule, and Mmaala. Ewondo, Basaa, or French are used as second languages. Ewondo is understood by most of the older generation. Basaa is mainly only used by the older generation, not young people. French is learned and spoken from early childhood in school, and in nearly every aspect of daily life, including the family, although interpretation into Nubaca is made in church. Survey needed. 

NUGUNU(GUNU, GOUNOU, NU GUNU, YAMBASSA, YAMBASA, OMBESSA, BEKE, BEHIE) [YAS] 35,000 (1987 SIL). In and around Ombessa to southwest in Ombessa and Bokito subdivisions, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60). Dialects: NORTHERN GUNU, SOUTHERN GUNU. 50% to 75% literate. Work in progress. 

NYONG(DAGANYONGA, DAGANONGA, NYONGNEPA, MUMBAKE, MUBAKO, NDAGAM, SAMBA BALI) [MUO] 17,000 in Cameroon (1987 census). Near the Ndop Plain in Balikuumbat, Baligansin, and Baligashu villages in Ngo-Ketunjia Division, Baligham in Mezam Division, north of Ngoundere, North Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. The people are called 'Chamba', 'Samba', 'Chamba-Bali', or 'Samba-Bali'. They consider themselves to be the same ethnically as speakers of Samba Leko, but there is significant difficulty in inherent intelligibility. Speakers use Cameroons Pidgin (generally spoken and understood) or Standard English (by those educated beyond primary level) as second languages. Traditional religion, Christian (small). Survey needed. 

NZAKMBAY(MBAY, NZAK MBAI, NZAK MBAY, NZAKAMBAY) [NZY] Around Touboro, Touboro Subdivision, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Mainly in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central. Dialect: GONGE (NGONGE). 15% to 25% literate. NT 1968-1994. 

NZANYI(NJANYI, NZANGI, ZANI, ZANY, NJENY, JENG, NJEGN, NJEING, NJAI, NJEI, NZANGYIM, KOBOCHI, KOBOTSHI) [NJA] 9,000 in Cameroon; 77,000 in Nigeria (1993); 86,000 in all countries. West of Dourbeye near Nigerian border in Doumo region, Mayo-Oulo Subdivision, Mayo-Louti Division, North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Dialect: HOLMA. Muslim, traditional religion. 

OBLO [OBL] Near Tchollire, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Unclassified. Survey needed. 

OKU(KUO, EKPWO, BVUKOO, UKU, UKFWO) [OKU] 40,000 (1991 L. Davis SIL). Around Mt. Oku and Lake Oku, western Jakiri Subdivision, Bui Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Distinct from Kuo which is Adamawa. 5% to 15% literate. Work in progress. 

OSATU(OSSATU, IHATUM) [OST] Southeast of Asumbo, Akwaya Subdivision, Manyu Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 60% lexical similarity with Balo, 40% with Ipulo and Caka, 35% with Mesaka and Esimbi. Pidgin is the second language. Literacy is in English. Mountains. Traditional religion. Survey needed. 

OSO(SOUTHERN FUNGOM, OSSO, NDUM) [OSO] 31,000 (1982 SIL). East of Wum, North West Province, spoken at Esu. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Distinctiveness from Fungom and Bum is not clear. Survey needed. 

PAM [PMN] Near Tchollire, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified. Survey needed. 

PANA(PANI) [PNZ] (82,000 in CAR; 1996). Touboro Subdivision, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Mainly in Central African Republic. Some are in urban areas in Cameroon and Nigeria. Also in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central, Karang. Dialect: MAN. Man may be a separate language. 5% to 15% literate. Bible portions 1953. 

PAPE(PANON, PA'NON, DUGUN) [NDU] 5,000 (1991 UBS). Southeast of Poli, Poli Subdivision, Faro Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii. 80% lexical similarity with Dii. They refer to themselves as Dugun. Close to Duupa and Saa. EELC primer. Work in progress. 

PARKWA(PODOKO, PADUKO, PODOKWO, PODOGO, PADOGO, PADOKWA, PAWDAWKWA, PAREKWA, GWADI PAREKWA, KUDALA) [PBI] 30,000 (1993 SIL). West and southwest of Mora, Mora Subdivision, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Podoko. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Traditional religion. NT 1992. Bible portions 1981. 

PEERE(PERE, PEER, KUTIN, KOUTIN, KOUTINE, KUTINE, KUTINN, KOTOPO, KOTOFO, KOTPOJO, POTOPO, POTOPORE, PATAPORI) [KUT] 15,000 in Cameroon (1993); 5,000 in Nigeria (1993); 20,000 in all countries. Northwestern Tignere Subdivision between Tignere and Nigerian border, Faro and Deo Division; northeast of Banyo, Mayo-Banyo Division, Adamawa Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin. Dialects: PEER MUURE, ZONGBI (DJONBI), DAN MUURE (POTOPO, KOTOPO, KPOTOPO, KOTOFO). 'Peer' is the name the people use for themselves. Dictionary. Grammar. Primer. Traditional religion. NT 1985. 

PELASLA(MBREME, NDREME, VAME-MORA, VAME-MBREME, SIGILA) [MLR] 8,500 (1992 SIL). Southern Mora massif south of Mora, Mora and Tokombere subdivisions, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialects: MAYO-PLATA (PELASLA, PLASLA, PLATLA, PLATA, GWENDELE, DAMLALE), MBEREM (MBREME, MASLAVA), DEMWA (DMWA, DOUME), HURZA (HURZO, OURZA, OURZO, OUZZA), NDREME. 'Sigila' may not be an alternate name. The 5 dialects are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Mayo-Plata is closer to Wuzlam than the other dialects are to Wuzlam. Wandala is used as second language. Few know Fulfulde except a few in the Hurza area. 'Pelasla' is their own name. 

PEVÉ(KA'DO PEVÉ, LAMÉ) [LME] 3,000 to 5,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 20,000 in Chad (1991 UBS); 23,000 to 25,000 in all countries. Northeast of Tchollire around Bouba-Ndjida Park, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. EELC primer. Different from Lame of Nigeria. NT 1986. Bible portions 1983. 

PIDGIN, CAMEROON (WES COS, CAMEROON CREOLE ENGLISH) [WES] (2,000,000 mainly second language users; 1989 UBS). Primarily in South West and North West provinces, but also widespread elsewhere. Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio. Used by the police force, prisons, urban school children at play since 1884. Now the most widespread lingua franca in Cameroon, used by about half the population (Todd and Hancock 1986). Similar to Krio of Sierra Leone and Pidgin English of various West African countries; probably an offshoot of 19th century Krio. Also similar to Sranan (Ian Hancock). A growing number of first language speakers. There are dialect variations. Below 5% literate. Trade language. Bible portions 1966. Work in progress. 

PINYIN [PNY] 16,000 (1982 SIL). Southwest of Bamenda, southwestern Bamenda Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Dialect: PINYIN (BAPINYI, PELIMPO). May be inherently intelligible with the Mankon dialect of Ngemba. Related to Awing, Ngemba, Bafut, and Mendankwe. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed. 

POL(PORI, POMO, PUL, CONGO POL) [PMM] 27,000 in all countries (1982 SIL). East of Doume, Dimako Subdivision, Upper Nyong Division; east of Belabo, Belabo Subdivision, Lom and Djerem Division, East Province. Also in Congo. Not in CAR. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.90). Dialects: AZOM (PORI ASOM, ASOM), BOBILI, DONDI, MAMBAYA, PORI KINDA (KINDA). 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed. 

PSIKYE(KAPSIKI, KAMSIKI, PTSAKE) [KVJ] 40,500 (1982 SIL). Southwestern part of Mokolo Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Some in Nigeria. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Dialects: PSIKYE (KAPSIKI, KAMU), ZLENGE, WULA (OULA, ULA-XANGKU). Closely related to Hya and Kamwe of Nigeria. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion. NT 1988. 

SAA(SARI, SAAPA, YINGA) [SZR] 3,500 (1982 SIL). In the middle of a massif with difficult access, southeast of Poli, Faro Division, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii. Related to Pape. Survey needed. 

SAMBA LEKO (CHAMBA LEEKO, SAMBA) [NDI] 50,000 in all countries (1971 Welmers). West of Poli and south of Beka Subdivision along the Nigerian border, approximately between Chamba and the Mayo-Louti River, Faro Division, North Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Dialects: SAMBA LEKO (NDII, LEKON, LEGO, LEKO, LAEKO, SUNTAI), DEENU (KOOLA), BANGLA, SAMBA DE WANGAI, SAMPARA. Closely related to Kolbila. Different from Samba Daka. Work in progress. 

SHARWA(TCHEVI, SHERWIN) [SWQ] Southern Bourrah Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province; a few in Mayo-Louti Division, North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Different from Sarua (Sarwa) of Chad. Survey needed. 

SO(SSO, SHWO, FO) [SOX] 9,000 (1992 D. Bradley SIL). Melan and Emvane cantons, Akonolinga Subdivision, Nyong-and-Mfoumou Division, Center Province; a few in Upper Nyong Division, East Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: MELAN SO, EMVANE SO. The two dialects have vocabulary and pronunciation differences, but no reported problem with intelligibility between them. Melan So has been influenced by Beti (Ewondo and Bulu). So is used in the home and village, but Beti is also used in those domains. Children are increasingly learning Beti and French. Beti is used in church and the marketplace. There is a lot of intermarriage with the Beti. French is used in schools and government offices. Different from So (Heso) of Zaïre. Survey needed. 

SUGA(SSUGA, GALIM, NIZAA, NYAMNYAM, NJEMNJEM, JEMJEM) [SGI] 10,000 (1985 EELC). Around Galim southwest of Tignère, Faro-and-Deo Division; and around Sambolabbo, northern Banyo Subdivision, Mayo-Banyo Division, Adamawa Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Suga. Different from Nimbari (Nyamnyam) of Cameroon. 'Sewe' may be an alternate name. 'Baghap' is their name for themselves; 'Nizaa' for their language. A few adults are literate in Fulfulde in Arabic script; few can read Roman script. Agriculturalists. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. 

TARAM [TAX] 3,000. Possibly in North Province, but its presence in Cameroon is not confirmed. Perhaps in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Survey needed. 

TIBEA(NGAYABA, NYABEA, MINJANTI, ZANGNTE, DJANTI, NJANTI) [NGY] 1,400 (1992 SIL). Northeast of Bafia in extreme northern Ngoro Subdivision, Mbam Division, Center Province, 3 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.50). Isolated geographically. Speakers not bilingual in nearby languages. Younger people learning French. Survey needed. 

TIKAR(TIKAR-EAST, TIKARI, TIKALI, NDOB, TINGKALA, NDOME) [TIK] 25,000 (1989 SIL). Scattered over a wide area northwest of Yoko and northeast of Foumban, Center Province (Ngambe-Tikar Subdivision, Mbam Division), Adamawa Province (Bankim Subdivision, Mayo-Banyo Division), West Province (Magba Subdivision, Noun Division). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tikar. Dialects: TWUMWU (TUMU, TIKAR DE BANKIM), TIGE (TIKAR DE NGAMBE), NDITAM, KONG, MANKIM, GAMBAI, BANDOBO. Bandobo is a dialect or closely related language. The Bankim call their dialect 'Twumwu', the Ngambe call theirs 'Tige'. 25% to 50% literate. NT 1989. Bible portions 1987. 

TIV [TIV] 2,000,000 in all countries (1991 UBS), including a few in Cameroon. Only in the village of Njobo (Njawbaw) northeast of Akwaya on the Nigerian border, Manyu Division, South West Province. Mainly in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 15% to 25% literate. Christian, traditional religion. Bible 1964. NT 1936-1942. Bible portions 1916-1959. 

TO [TOZ] Touboro Subdivision, Mayo-Rey Division, North Province. Also in Central African Republic. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified. An ancient secret male initiation language of the Gbaya. Second language only. No mother tongue speakers. 

TSUVAN(TERKI, TELEKI, TCHEDE) [TSH] Northeast of Dourbeye in the village of Teleki, southeastern Bourrah Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province; some in Mayo-Louti Division, North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Survey needed. 

TUKI(SANAGA, BETSINGA, BETZINGA, BACENGA, BATCHENGA, OKI, BAKI, KI, OSA NANGA) [BAG] 26,000 (1982 SIL). Along the Sanaga River north of Saa, and north of the Sanaga River between Ombessa and Ntui, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Sanaga (A.60). Dialects: KOMBE (TUKOMBE, WAKOMBE, BAKOMBE), TOCENGA (TIKI, BACENGA), TSINGA (CHINGA, TUTSINGO, BATSINGO), BUNDUM, TONJO (BUNJU, BOUDJOU), NGORO (TU NGORO, UKI, AKI), MBERE (TUMBELE, MBELE, BAMBELE, MVELE, BAMVELE). 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed. 

TUNEN(BANEN, BANEND, PENIN, PENYIN, NENNI NYO'O) [BAZ] 35,300 (1982 SIL). Ndikinimeki and Makenene subdivisions, Mbam Division, Center Province; south to the eastern part of Yingui Subdivision, Nkam Division, Littoral Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.60). Dialects: ELING (ALINGA, TULING), ITUNDU, LOGANANGA, NDOGBANG, NDOKBIAKAT, NDOKTUNA, NI NYO'O (NYO'ON, NYOKON, FUNG) BONEK (PONEK), MESE (PANINGESEN, NINGUESSEN, SESE). May be in Bantu A.60. Distinct from Pinyin in the Ngemba group. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Grammar. Mountain slope. Traditional religion, Christian. 

TUOTOMB(PONEK, BONEK) [TTF] 1,000 or fewer (1984 ALCAM). Village of Bonek near Ndikinemeki, Bafia Subdivision, Mbam Division, Center Province. Many live in urban areas. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.40). Speakers are bilingual in Tunen, and some in Yambeta, or Cameroon Pidgin

TUPURI(TOUPOURI, TUBURI, TOUBOURI, NDORE, NDOORE, WINA, TONGOYNA, HONYA, DEMA, MATA) [TUI] 125,000 in Cameroon; 90,785 in Chad (1993 census); 216,000 in all countries. Southeastern Moulvouday plain east of Kaele, Kaele Division; Kar-Hay Subdivision, Mayo-Danay Division, Far North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai. 5% to 15% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1988. 

TWENDI [TWN] 1,000 or fewer (1991 SIL). 35 or fewer in the villages of Sanga and Chamba on the Nyamboya to Somie road, and some in other villages. Sanga village, north of Bankim, Mayo-Banyo Division, Adamawa Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Konja. Speakers are bilingual in Kwanja. The language appears to be diminishing in use. 

VENGO(BABUNGO, VENGOO, VENGI, PENGO, NGO, NGUU, NGWA, NGE) [BAV] 13,500 (1982 SIL). North of Ndop on the Ndop Plain, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, North. Their name for themselves is 'Vengoo'. Closely related languages: Wushi, Kenswei-Nsei, Bamunka. 25% to 50% literate. Dictionary. Grammar. NT 1993. Bible portions 1985. 

VUTE(VOUTE, WOUTE, BABOUTE, BUTE, PUTE, WUTE, BAMBOUTE, FOUTE, BOUTE, VOUTERE, BUBURE, LUVURE, BULE, NBULE, 'ABOTEE, 'ABWETEE) [VUT] 30,000 in Cameroon (1986 EELC) including 300 in Banyo (1995 Bruce Connell); 1,000 or fewer in Nigeria (1973 SIL); 31,000 in all countries. Northeastern Mbam Division and near Nanga-Eboko and Mbandjok, Upper Sanaga Division, Center Province; Mayo-Banyo and Djerem divisions (near Tibati and Banyo), Adamawa Province; some in western Lom and Djerem Division, East Province. Also in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute. Dialects: BUTE BAMNYO (VUTE DE BANYO), VUTE MBANJO (VUTE DE MBANDJOK), NUDOO (VUTE DE YANGBA), NUJUM (VUTE DE LINTE), NDUVUM (VUTE DE TIBATI), NUGANE (VUTE DE DOUME), KUMBERE (VUTE DE SANGBE), NGORO (VUTE DE NGORRO). Banyo Vute is still used daily, but seems heavily influenced by Fulfulde. 15% to 25% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress. 

WANDALA(MANDARA, NDARA, MANDARA MONTAGNARD) [MFI] 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 19,300 in Nigeria (1970); 42,800 in all countries. In a belt starting east of Mora, around it to the north in a semicircle, and northwest to the Nigerian border, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara. Dialects: KAMBURWAMA, MASFEIMA, JAMPALAM, ZIOGBA, MAZAGWA, GWANJE, WANDALA (MANDARA), MURA (KIRDI-MORA, MORA BROUSSE, MORA MASSIF, DUWE), GAMARGU (GAMERGOU, GAMERGU, MALGO, MALGWA). A dialect cluster. 5% to 15% literate. Trade language used by non-mother tongue speakers in the Mora area. Muslim. NT 1988. Bible portions 1967. 

WAWA [WWW] 3,000 (1991 SIL). West of Banyo, Bankim Subdivision, Mayo-Banyo Division, Adamawa Province, 13 villages. There may be some in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute. Dialect: GANDUA. Speakers use Fulani as second language. Below 5% literate. Survey needed. 

WEH [WEH] 6,900 (1994 SIL). Village of Weh, Wum Central Subdivision, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Little dialect variation. Weh is used to some extent in church services. Some speakers use Cameroon Pidgin as second language; some multilingualism with Aghem and Isu. Closely related to Aghem and Isu, but considered to be a separate language. May be intelligible with Aghem or Isu. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed. 

WOM(PERE, PEREMA, PEREBA, ZAGAI) [WOM] 13,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 5,000 in Nigeria; 18,000 in all countries. Southwest of Garoua, North Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Closely related to Chamba. May not be in Cameroon. 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed. 

WUMBOKO(BAMBOKO, BOMBOKO, BAMBUKU, BUMBOKO, WOMBOKO, MBOKO) [BQM] 2,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Buea Subdivision, Fako Division, and Kumba Subdivision, Meme Division, South West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.20). Probably intelligible with Mokpwe, but different enough from Duala to possibly need separate literature. Survey needed. 

WUSHI(BABESSI, VESI, PESII, SII) [BSE] 12,350 (1982 SIL). East of Ndop, Ndop Subdivision, Mezam Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, North. Closely related to Vengo, Kenswei-Nsei, and Bamunka. 'Wushi' is their name for themselves. 

WUZLAM(ULDEME, OULDEME, UZAM, UDLAM, UZLAM, MIZLIME) [UDL] 10,500 (1982 SIL). Wuzlam Massif south of Mora, Tokombere Subdivision, Mayo-Sava Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Work in progress. 

YAMBA("KAKA", MBEM, MBUBEM, KAKAYAMBA, BEBAROE, BOENGA KO MUZOK, SWE'NGA) [YAM] 30,000 to 40,000 in Cameroon (1993 SIL). Central Nwa Subdivision, Donga-Mantung Division, North West Province. Seasonal immigrants in Nigeria, Mambila Plateau. A few in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Dialects: NTEM, MFE, NKOT, NTONG, KWAK. 15% to 25% literate. NT 1992. Bible portions 1990. 

YAMBETA(YAMBETTA, NJAMBETA) [YAT] 3,700 (1982 SIL). Bafia Subdivision northwest of Bafia, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.40). Dialects: NEDEK, NIGII (NIGI, BEGI-NIBUM, KIBUM). Related to Bati, Dumbule, Elip, Leti, Mmaala, Nubaca, Nugunu, Tuki, and Yangben. 15% to 25% literate. 

YANGBEN [YAV] 2,300 (1994 SIL); 14,000 together with Elip and Mmaala (1994 SIL). Yangben canton south of Bokito, Bokito Subdivision, Mbam Division, Center Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60). French is used in primary and secondary education. Speakers do not think French will replace Yangben. Interpretation is made into Yangben in RC church services. Ewondo or Bulu are used in other churches. Speakers acquire understanding of Mmaala and Elip in early adulthood. A standardized written form may be possible with those 2 related languages. Survey needed. 

YASA(YASSA, LYAASA, MAASA, BONGWE) [YKO] 1,500 in all countries (1982 SIL). On the coast near Equatorial Guinea, Campo Subdivision, Ocean Division, South Province. Also in Equatorial Guinea. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bube-Benga (A.30), Yasa. Survey needed. 

YEMBA(TCHANG, DSCHANG, BAFOU, ATSANG-BANGWA, BANGWA, BAMILEKE-YEMBA) [BAN] 300,000 or more (1992 SIL). Major part of Menoua Division, centered around Dschang, West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Dialects: YEMBA, FOREKE DSCHANG (DSCHANG, TCHANG). Part of a language continuum which includes Ngwe and Ngyemboon. 15% to 25% literate. Work in progress. 

YENI [YEI] Not far north of Mayo Darle village in Nyalang area. Unclassified. Apparently all that remains of the language is a song, known by speakers of Sandani (Kwanja). Extinct. 

YUKUBEN(NYIKUBEN, NYIKOBE, AYIKIBEN, BORITSU, BALAABE, BALAABEN, OOHUM, UUHUM, UUHUM-GIGI) [YBL] 950 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton); 15,000 in Nigeria (1992); 16,000 in all countries. Near Nigerian border, west of Furu-Awa, Menchum Division, North West Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. The name 'Uuhum Gigi' is preferred in Cameroon. The people are called 'Yukuben'. Speakers in Cameroon want to have their language written and form a language committee. High bilingualism in Jukun. Pidgin is also spoken in the area. Isolated, no roads. Mountain slope. Survey needed. 

ZIZILIVEKEN(ZIZILIVAKAN, ZILIVA, ÀMZÍRÍV, FALI OF JILBU) [ZIZ] A few hundred in Cameroon (1992 Crozier and Blench). Near Nigerian border, Bourrah Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Also in Nigeria. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. People are called 'Fali of Jilbu'. May be the same as Jilbe in Nigeria. Survey needed. 

ZULGWA(ZULGO, ZOULGO, ZELGWA, MINEO, MINEW) [ZUL] 18,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern edge of Mandara Mts. northwest of Meri, Mayo-Sava Division, (Tokombere Subdivision) and Mayo-Tsanaga Division (Mokolo Subdivision), Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialects: ZELGWA, MINEW (ZULGWA, ZULGO, MUKUNO, MINEWE, MINEO). 5% to 5% literate. Agriculturalists: millet. NT 1988. Bible portions 1983. 

ZUMAYA [ZUY] Only a few speakers left (1987 SIL). Ouro-Lamorde, Maroua Subdivision, Diamare Division, Far North Province. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Nearly extinct.

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